Monday, September 30, 2019

Culture and Disease Essay

Culture is a pattern of behavior and thinking learned, shaped and shared by Europeans and Americans. It is their growing and developing bank of knowledge, experiences, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, material objects and possessions gained through generations of individual group work (Williams 1976). Any discomfort, dysfunction, distress, social problems, and alterations of behavior for Europeans and Americans are considered a disease. It is a change that disrupts the normal function of the body. It is initially believed to be caused by curses, evil spirits, or night vapors. However, in the mid-19th century the discoveries and findings of scientific works by Louis Pasteur and Koch concluded microorganisms or germs are the pathogens of infectious diseases which usually gain entrance into the body. These are microorganisms that are able to infect a host and produce a disease (Miller 2003). Subsequent studies and researches improved the concepts of healthcare. In the 21st century, Western Science of Medicine means accuracy. It is the name of the trend. Its subject the human body is likened to an outstandingly complex machine that can be figured out, customized, renovated, and its health defined and described in strictly clinical terms. Medical experts called Physicians can identify and eliminate disease-causing or etiologic organisms that originate outside the body, Surgeons evolved to be incomparable experts in dealing with acute trauma and distress, and epidemiologist uncovers the factors that determine the frequency, distribution, and determinants of diseases in human populations. These factors include the characteristics of the pathogen, the susceptibility of human population resulting from overcrowding, lack of immunization, nutritional status, inadequate sanitation procedures, locations or reservoirs where pathogens lie in wait, and the various means by which infectious disease is transmitted. Ironically, resurgence of infectious disease such as tuberculosis occurred brought about by the emergence of another infectious disease HIV/AIDS (Burton 2004). The existence of epidemic and communicable diseases in specific areas were found to follow geographic patterns. Diseases like Poliomyelitis caused by over population infected Brazilian children population, and it also infected older age Scandinavian and Americans; cholera, yellow fever and dengue infected Indians in India as a result of poor sanitation; Plague brought about by rodents are cases in the Western United States of America, and in China, it is carried by rodents and fleas infecting Chinese. These findings were important concepts for public awareness to guide travelers and servicemen (Duffy 1953). Body Tuberculosis is a chronic mycobacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract characterized by fever, night sweats, weight loss, productive cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing up blood and hoarseness. It may infect lymph nodes causing systemic disease like kidney disease, urinary bladder disease and bone disease (Burton 2004). The dynamics of infection follows the following pattern: Sources of Infection > Modes of entry > Mechanism of disease > Pattern of infection > Portals of exit. Mycobacterium tuberculosis a slow-growing, acid-fast, Gram-variable bacillus is an aerobic bacillus species capable of reproducing within 16-20 hours. It is the etiologic agent of the disease called tuberculosis (Burton 2004). Mycobacterium tuberculosis developed resistance to treatment drugs. It is the second leading killer of adults in the world, with more than 2 million TB-related deaths each year (Burton 2004). Ironically, one of the endemic diseases in the United States of America is this bacterial disease called tuberculosis. In 2004 Centers for Disease and Controls, Atlanta, GA reported 14, 517 tuberculosis cases. The resurgence of tuberculosis in the United States of America in the 1980’s through 1990’s primarily resulted from the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the multi-drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis (Burton 2004). Identification and recognition of the characteristics of the pathogen, the susceptibility of human population resulting from overcrowding, lack of immunization, nutritional status, inadequate sanitation procedures, locations or reservoirs, emigration and migration of men and animals, and stress makes people immunosuppressed resulting to infection, considering that pathogens may come primarily from infected humans, sometimes from primates, cattle and other infected mammals (Burton 2004) . There are various sources from which tuberculosis can be acquired and transmitted. It may be via airborne droplets produced by the infected organism during coughing, sneezing, even singing and prolonged direct contact with infected individuals ((Burton 2004). Prevention, Precautions, Sterilization, disinfection and Patient care would all involve airborne precautions (Burton 2004). In Clinical practice, disinfection and sterilization as well as laboratory procedures were employed being a necessity. Their scientific basis has been developed only during the past century. These important procedures are: Sterilization which is the destruction or complete removal by filtration of all forms of microorganisms including their spores; Disinfection is the destruction of many microorganisms but not usually bacterial spores; Antisepsis, is the destruction or inhibition of microorganisms in living tissues thereby limiting or preventing the harmful effect of infection; Static agent would inhibit the growth of bacteriostatic microorganisms; Bactericidal agent would kill the microorganisms; Sterilizers are chemicals which under controlled conditions kill spore-forming bacteria. These agents which perform the above functions were divided into physical agents and chemical agents. With these mechanisms, Epidemiologist and Social psychologist in the United States of America helped contribute to the study of health and to the interventions to improve people’s well-being and quality of life by promoting health and preventing illnesses. They identify psychological factors that might influence illness, and identify improved ways in which health care is delivered. This is also a form of proposition for the improvement of the health of the population by promoting healthy choices and preventing people from becoming ill. Psychologists are persuasive by appealing to fear for the negative health consequences, subsequently encouraging American families, peer and schooling young adolescents to change their health behaviors by redirecting their behavioral intentions. This is in line with the concept that the actions taken by people to safeguard their health are influenced by factors such as general health values, perceived susceptibility to illness, perceptions of illness severity, expectations of treatment success, self-efficacy, perceived barriers and benefits, and cues to action. Healthy habits that are currently recommended are vigorous regular exercise, quitting smoking, limiting alcohol intake, eating healthy foods, and getting enough sleep. Even so, considering the increased cultural mixing Of the United States of America, programs or lessons in scholastic trainings are incorporated as designed to increase intercultural communications as cultural patterns affect how people make sense of the many aspects of health care: the meanings that people give to health and illness, the causes of diseases, the means to prevent illnesses, appropriate cures, and the types of individuals most qualified to provide care and attempt to cure. In this context, magico-religious approach, holistic approach and biomedical approach are not set aside, but, the healthcare system of the United States of America is typically focused on the individual patient as the source of the medical problem in need of a cure. This is rather the biomedical approach adopted to address the issues of illness and wellness. It considers people health regardless of culture to be driven by biochemical forces. Wellness is achieved by understanding that the biochemical reaction is activated. Illness happens when a part of the normal human body metabolic activities is altered. Treatments are provided by Medical health practitioners like Doctors and Nurses, thus bringing back the normal course of bodily metabolic activities supportive of good health (Lustig 1996). In 1953 Dr. Louis H. Bauer of New York, USA as a secretary General of the World Medical Health Association outlined the major task to address medical care need from their time on, such as: 1) Rural community work to establish facilities and to encourage physicians participation; 2) provide medical care all depressed areas : 3) Extend public health coverage to depressed areas; 4) Evolve strategies to address care needs people with inborn disorders; 5) Provide insurance programs to people specially senior citizens and the disabled; 6) Eradicate graft and corruption in the Medical practice; 7) General public protection for regular Medical services; 8) Renew medical societies; and 9) Medical Health ethics education for the Medical Health practitioners (Perkins 1993). Conclusion With the advent of post-industrial age marked by the ubiquitous appearance and usages of television and the computer, supposedly a reliable indicator, most Americans should be healthy and wealthy. Being so, it could be enough to affect longevity positively, primarily through lifestyle choices, rather than lack of food or shelter and diseases (Lustig 1996). However, Studies revealed that even the introduction of Medicare in the United States, bringing the poor substantially at par with the rich in terms of health care and medical services did not eliminate or even markedly reduced the large differential mortality. In contrast, life expectancy in Japan is far above all the rest of the countries in the world. The life expectancy for males is 78 years while the life expectancy for females is 85 years, in spite of half the level of spending for healthcare than that of the United States of America amounting to around $2,000 per person, 7. 4 percent of GDP (Powell 1990). The technology used in the Japanese health care system is similar to that used in the United States of America, but, the flow of funds, the quantity and intensity of use is considerably different (Powell 1990). In Japan, all citizens are free to choose any physician and hospital. Physicians may be General Private Practitioner providing primary and secondary care, while Specialist works in hospitals. Hospitals may be large and public university hospitals with medical school, research facilities, and outpatient department for primary care while small time private practitioners have small facilities and less sophisticated treatments (Powell 1990). Knowing that tuberculosis is transmitted via airborne droplets produced by the infected organism during coughing, sneezing, even singing and prolonged direct contact with infected individuals, preventions and precautions are better than an ounce of medicine after infection. Reference Burton, G. and Engelkirk, P. (2004). Microbiology for Health Sciences. USA: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Lustig, M. and Koester, J. (1996). Intercultural Competence. 6th ed. USA: HarperCollins. Powell, M. and Anesaki, M. (1990). Health Care in Japan. New York: Routledge. Duffy, John. (1953). Epidemics in Colonial America. Perkins, James E. (1952). You and Tuberculosis.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Analysis of Rudyard Kipling’s “The Bridegroom” Essay

During the First World War, death was a constant threat. Soldiers faced it every day in the trenches, and more succumbed to it. Rudyard Kipling’s Epitaphs of War represents the impact those deaths had across much of the world. â€Å"The Bridegroom† exposes the last thoughts of a dying soldier through an extended metaphor, personification and tone. First of all, the title and first stanza reveal that the speaker, a young soldier, is either dying or already dead. Traditionally, a bridegroom defines a man on his wedding day. In this poem, Kipling personifies the bride as death and therefore the title refers to a man on his last day. The speaker is a soldier fighting in the trenches, writing or at least speaking out to his wife back home. The first stanza initiates the apologetic and sorrowful tone that is used throughout the poem. The soldier asks his wife not to call him â€Å"false† as he rests in other arms. He apologizes to his beloved for abandoning her for a new mistress, death. The arms not only represent death’s embrace, but they also evoke falling to the weapons of the enemy in battle. The stanza also demonstrates that the couple’s marriage is recent as the speaker mentions his wife’s â€Å"scarce-known breast.† The second stanza clearly brings forward the poem’s theme. The soldier mentions his â€Å"more ancient bride,† death. She is qualified as ancient because she has always existed, not only with him but since the beginning of time. He also describes a cold embrace, the word cold working on several levels here. It refers to the deceased and his rigidity, but it also expresses his reluctance to follow death. By calling her â€Å"constant,† Kipling emphasizes the reality of death on the battlefield; she was faithful and always lurked over the soldier. The third stanza describes how the young man escaped from his â€Å"often set marriage† with death through unexplained miracles. We can suppose that he narrowly survived several life-threatening events, thereby cheating death,  which relates back to his â€Å"cheating† on his living marriage. His â€Å"new† marriage is now perceived as â€Å"consummate,† a term which is usually used for unions made complete through the sexual act. This union, however, refers to the soldier’s falling into death’s embrace, finally touching her after a long apprehension and ultimately lying in her bed, his grave. The term â€Å"consummate† can also represent perfection, which, in this marriage refers to the fact that it was meant to be. The last line reinforces the consummation by saying that the union â€Å"cannot be unmade.† Death cannot be unmade; it is a permanent state as the ideal marriage is, but it also returns to the metaphorical bed which will forever remain unmade. In the last stanza, the tone reaches a lull, yet is still filled with sorrow. The speaker urges his wife to â€Å"live,† to move on and allow life to â€Å"cure† her of the painful memory of him. Kipling uses a metaphor to treat memories as a painful disease that can only be cured by time. The soldier expresses fear of being forgotten with the word â€Å"almost.† He wants to be remembered although he mostly desires for his beloved to regain happiness. The final two lines return to a more somber tone as the soldier states he will have to endure the â€Å"immortality† of memories in death. In the end, we can feel the young man has a greater acceptance of his state as he begins using the pronoun â€Å"us† to qualify himself and death. The marriage, having been consummated, as previously stated, they are now one. Immortality is an evocative word, which fits perfectly into the general theme. The soldier is now immortal, fixed in time with his memories and never able to make new ones. The term also refers back to death, which is immortal in its own way. To conclude, Rudyard Kipling’s â€Å"The Bridegroom’ expresses the difficult process associated with death. The various metaphors and personification bring forward the themes in an apologetic, somber tone. The nameless soldier represents all young men who died young unfairly in the trenches, afraid of being disloyal to their countries.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Application Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Application - Assignment Example The objective of the training program was to orient these managers on the basis managerial and administrative responsibilities in different nursing units to enable nursing unit managers to focus direct patient care. evaluation findings is to determine if the identified goals where effectively achieved. As identified, the training objectives include orienting the newly hired unit managers on managerial and administrative responsibilities to be undertaken at different nursing units; and thereby, to enable nursing unit managers to focus on patient care. The audiences within whom the findings were communicated to were the Department Managers of the Nursing Department and the Vice President for Nursing for review and assessment and forwarding of results to the President and CEO of the organization. Likewise, the results were subsequently communicated to the Nurse Unit Managers for information purposes. Parallel to the discussions presented in Russ-Eft & Preskill (2009), the target audience that were identified herewith were considered according to being: (1) directly involved in the development of the training program; and (2) they are directly interested and affected by the results of the training program (p. 406). The timing of the communication and evaluation reports was considered. As disclosed by Rodgers, although the formal evaluation was scheduled after the six week training period, regular weekly updates were reported to the Department Managers of Nursing Department and to the Vice President of Nursing. Therefore, in addition to the weekly reports, the final evaluation and communication of findings were set at the 7th week from the initial basic orientation to review and evaluated the outcome; any challenges or difficulties encountered; any proposed changes to the current managerial and administrative tasks, as proposed by the unit managers; and to incorporate suggestions or comments recommended by the Nurse Unit Managers. The

Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 32

Assignment Example With this concern, the assignment intends to establish certain methods by which Chile has been able to perform unilateral trade liberations successfully to the full elimination of quantitative restrictions and exchange controls. Trade liberalization of Chile could be classified under five stages of development process. Generally, unilateral trade liberalization technique involves the risk sharing mechanism. By deducting the interest of domestic political affairs, the unilateral trade relaxation may get blocked. The unilateral tariff cutback by a certain degree gets rid of this incompetence, but at certain situations, the factor concerning trade liberalization becomes more effective in the nation (Edwards and Lederman, 1998). Trade liberalization is duly considered to be one of the significant topics from the preceding two decades as a form of economic policy for the developing countries. It is worth mentioning in this regard that public-private partnership has played a pivotal role in framing the emerging economy for Chile. The reduction of tariff towards the import of goods aided the private enterprises of the nation to grow extensively. In the past, executing free trade agreement has always been a subject of conflict for the agricultural sector. Agricultural product has been the issue of dynamic export arena accounting for fifteen percent of total exports. The main contrast appears from the traditional inward thoughts of the people (Saez, 2005). The first stage ranged from the period of 1974-1978 and thus categorized by the reduction and the simplification of trade barriers. The second stage could be identified from 1978-1982, which reflected the picture of variation of its stabilization program. The third phase may be stated as the reversal stage that ranged from 1983-1985. It was the phase where Chile confronted severe

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Supply Chain --- Accessing Markets of the Urban Farmer Dissertation

Supply Chain --- Accessing Markets of the Urban Farmer - Dissertation Example Urban agriculture is totally different from peri-urban agriculture in the sense that urban agriculture is more focused on the use of gardens, vacant lots, balconies and small containers in growing vegetables and crops (FAO, n.d.). On the other hand, peri-urban agriculture is relying on farms that are situated close to a town or city (FAO, n.d.). One of the similarities between urban and peri-urban agriculture is that both types of agricultural activity produces homogenous products. In the study of economics, market structure of an industry is classified as either the market has monopolistic competition, oligopolistic, or a perfect competition (Tucker, 2011, pp. 136 – 180; Arnold, 2010, p. 458). Barrier to entry in urban and peri-urban agriculture is low since anybody can make it a practice to plant and harvest their own food supply. Because of the presence of so many buyers and sellers that sells homogenous products in the market, the market structure of urban and peri-urban f arming is classified as a perfect competition (Arnold, 2010, p. 458). 2.1.1 Mumbai, India Mumbai is one of the largest cities around the world that practice urban agriculture (Krause, 2010). Specifically the progress of urban farming in Mumbai was inspired by Dr. Doshi who conducted an experiment on food production in his own house (Vazhacharickal and Buerkert, 2011). Without requiring huge capital investment, Dr. Doshi converted his 1,200 sq. ft. terrace in Bandra for urban farming activities which allowed him to yield at least 5 kg of fruits and vegetables each day (Vazhacharickal and Buerkert, 2011; City Farmer, 2006). Up to the present time, there is no available statistics that can show how far urban farming is progressing in Mumbai, India. However, there are quite a lot of online videos and other written reviews showing that Mumbai is active in terms of promoting urban farming in this city. The number of Indian people who are actively supporting the practice of urban farming i s increasing. For instance, to compost kitchen waste and sell vegetables, fruits, and herbs, Levenston (n.d.) publicly announced that they are using 5,000 sq. ft. of unused rooftop for urban farming. To compost kitchen waste after feeding more than 30,000 employees, a 3,000 sq. ft. terrace in Mumbai Port Trust was converted into a kitchen garden (Pendharkar, 2008). Last December 2011, Rajesh decided to take advantage of urban farming as a form of business (gtsindia, 2012, 0:27; Levenston, n.d.). To sell urban farming produce to the market, Rajesh’s business partner mentioned that they have been talking to people including their prospective customers such as relatives and friends to support urban farming (1:25). Rajesh and his colleagues tried to convince 25 to 50 people to practice urban farming in their own balconies and terraces. However, one of the main problems that Rajesh have noticed is that a lot of people in Mumbai are still very reluctant whether or not urban farming is a reliable way of growing fruits and vegetables. To convince people to practic

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Christianity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Christianity - Essay Example Little is known about the origin of the historical Jesus. According to the Biblical accounts, Jesus is born by Mary in a stable during the Jew’s celebration of the Feast of the Light. The accounts also show that he is born during the time of a social and political turmoil in the Jewish nation because of the Roman invasion. The people are expecting a Messiah which will overthrow the abusive leader and who will save them from their destitute condition. However, Jesus Christ, the Messiah of the Christians is born in a manger which has also been predicted in the Bible’s Old Testament. Jesus is the single most important figure in Christianity. However, the deity of Christ is always often debated in the Christian world. While some sects believe that Jesus is the Son in the godhead, others believe that He is an incarnation of the Father himself, while still others believe that he is just human but not god. In Islam, Jesus is believed to be the greatest prophet of Mohammad. During Jesus’ time, He is opposed by the Jews because of their claim that He is destroying the law given to Moses by God himself. However, Jesus explained to them that he is not sent in the world to destroy the law but to fulfill it. It should be noted that through enough Jesus preaches the same law in the Ten Commandments. The first four laws, He summarized as loving God with all thy heart, soul, and mind while the last six He summarized as loving other people as one’s self. This is at the heart of Jesus message—for a man to have a personal relationship with his God and a harm onious relationship with his fellowmen.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Distribution of Justice in America Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Distribution of Justice in America - Essay Example From the report it is clear that the consequence of the distribution and maldistribution of justice under the Bill of Rights to the corporation is the rise of the global corporate empires with vast powers. This causes a threat to the democracy of America and the entire well-being of every citizen of America. American corporations and globalization are echoed as the best hope for democracy and prosperity in America. Though, this is hindered by the huge size of global firms and markets, lack of accountability and single-minded profit making and seeking. This, therefore, fails to distribute justice fairly because of, domination of corporations with a deteriorating economy and financially deep instability. This, therefore, creates a dangerous planetary environment. As the discussion highlights distribution and maldistribution of justice in America also occurs through the racial justice, affirmative action. In the long awaited Fisher decision, the Supreme Court allowed the use of race pre ferences in college admissions as part of the program of affirmative action. In the early years, United States understood and practiced educational affirmative action in a more rectifactory way and justice oriented. Justice is maldistributed since in some colleges in America, only a certain race can be admitted and successfully complete their education. In the same colleges, maldistribution of justice does not only happen in admission, but also in hiring context.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Article Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

Article Analysis - Essay Example The statistics are worrying because one would expect the teachers to take advantage of the computers and internet to ease the learning process (Keengwe and Onchwari, 210). I, however, think there should be no cause for worry among parents concerning the adverse effects of technology to their children. Teachers have the responsibility of monitoring how children use technology to restrict it for educational purposes only. From the research conducted at the summer institute, it is devastating that teachers find it hard infusing instructional responsibilities with technology integration. I fail to understand why they view integration and instruction as two different entities. If both support each other in delivering content to the students, teachers should be willing to adopt them (Keengwe and Onchwari, 214-215). I think teachers are intellectuals who can integrate technology into classrooms to engage various learning styles that meet the abilities of all learners. I concur with the authors that teachers need technological skills that do not necessarily make them experts (Keengwe and Onchwari, 215-216). Based on the authors’ recommendations, it is imperative that school administrators move swiftly in installing modern technological tools that aid educational software. Besides, state education officers should not only create technological workshops, but also provide full-time technology experts t o schools. The article, therefore, meets the authors’ goal of stimulating reflections and evaluating the need for technology integration in classrooms and, in particular, early childhood education. Keengwe, Jared, and Grace Onchwari. "Technology and Early Childhood Education: A Technology Integration Professional Development Model for Practicing Teachers."  Early Childhood Education Journal  37 (2009): 209-18. Web. 2 June

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Enterprise Architecture Essay Example for Free

Enterprise Architecture Essay 1) The three key disciplines used to effectively construct a Foundation of Execution are: Operating Model This dictates the level of business process integration and standardization for delivering goods and services to customers. Process Integration depicts the extent to which business units share data and enables end-to-end and a single interface for the customer The Operating Model involves a commitment to how the company will operate Enterprise Architecture This is the organizing logic for business processes and IT infrastructure which reflects the integration and standardization requirements of the company’s operating model. The Enterprise Architecture provides a long term view of a company’s process, systems, and technologies in order to build long term sustainable capabilities. IT Engagement Model The IT Engagement Model is the governance mechanism that ensures business and IT projects achieve both local and companywide objectives. This Model influences projects decisions ensuring that individual solutions are designed according to the enterprise architecture. The IT Engagement Model provides alignment between IT and the business objectives of projects. 2) The Enterprise Architecture communicates the high-level business process and IT requirements of a company’s operating model. This differs from IT Architecture to the degree of granularity that is presented. Enterprise Architecture does not provide the necessary details to map out technical or process design requirements. The IT Architecture developed by the IT unit is a more detailed architecture of applications, data and information, and technology. IT Architecture when developed with a clear understanding of the Enterprise Architecture provides long-term value because they provide the long-term vision for immediate solutions. 3) The current market trends and speed at which technology and the competitive landscape is constantly changes make it difficult for companies  to be able to adapt and survive. Complex Information systems restrain companies from being able to adapt in order to compete or leverage new technology and concepts. Companies without a solid foundation face the following risks: The effects of growing complexity on business operations The pressure that agility places the foundation of execution Role of business discipline in current national and political environments Role of costs in absence of foundation of execution Business agility increasingly depends on a Foundation of Execution. Implementing standardize, digitized processes results in simpler technology environments, lower cost operations and greater agility. 4) An operating model has two dimensions: business process standardization and integration. Companies are characterized into the following Operating Models: Diversification: Low Standardization, Low Integration Coordination: Low Standardization, High Integration Replication: High Standardization, Low Integration Unification: High Standardization, High Integration Examples: a. Unification Model – Delta Airlines Consisted of many IT platforms unable to communicate with each other Management and IT staff reached a common understanding of what capabilities the company would develop to support future strategies. In order to create a clear vision management defined four core processes. b. Diversification Model – Carlson Companies Each of Carlson’s portfolio of companies run more or less independently of each other. Carlson’s enterprise architecture core diagram shares technical infrastructure services while the business units retain control over local business processes and IT applications c. Coordination Model – MetLife MetLife’s strategy and operating model focused on providing integrated customer service across products. This required extraction of customer information and making it centrally available d. Replication Model – ING DIRECT ING DIRECT’s service modules digitize standardized processes across its business units. The identification of major service categories helps management understand existing capabilities and target new opportunities. 5) The four stages of Architecture Maturity are: Business Silo Architecture: where companies look to maximize individual business unit needs or functional needs Standardized Technology Architecture: providing IT efficiencies through technology standardization and, in most cases, increased centralization of technology management Optimized core architecture: provides companywide data and process standardization as appropriate for the operating model Business Modularity Architecture: where companies manage and reuse loosely coupled IT-enabled business process components to preserve global standards while enabling local differences 6) The strategic implications of the four architecture stages are as follows: Business Silos – Local / Functional optimization Standardized Technology / IT efficiency Optimized core / Business Operational efficiency Business Modularity / Strategic Agility 7) The three main ingredients 0f the IT Engagement Model: Companywide IT governance: decision rights and accountability framework to encourage desirable behavior in the use of IT Project management: formalized  project methodology, with clear deliverables and regular checkpoints Linking mechanisms: processes and decision-making bodies that align incentives and connect the project-level activities to the overall IT governance. 8) IT governance is the decision rights and accountability framework for encouraging desirable behaviors in the use of IT. IT governance reflects broader corporate governance principles while focusing on the management and use of IT to achieve corporate performance goals. IT governance encompasses five major decision areas related to the management and use of IT in a firm, all of which should be driven by the operating model: I. IT principles: high level decisions about the strategic role of IT in the business II. Enterprise architecture: the organizing logic for business processes and IT infrastructure III. IT infrastructure: centrally coordinated, shared IT services providing part of the foundation of execution IV. Business application needs: business requirements for purchased or internally developed IT applications that both use and build the foundation for execution V. Prioritization and investment: decisions about how much and where to invest in IT, including project approval and justification techniques. 9) Linking mechanisms is the third essential ingredient of the IT engagement model. Linking mechanisms connect companywide governance and projects. Good IT governance ensures that there’s clear direction on how to evolve the company’s foundation. Good project management ensures that projects are implemented effectively, efficiently, and in a consistent manner to maximize learning. Good linking mechanisms ensure that projects incrementally build the company’s foundation and that the design of the company’s foundation is informed by projects. There are three types of linking mechanisms (architecture linkage, business linkage, and alignment linkage) that address the key alignment and coordination concerns of the company. Architecture Linkage establishes and updates standards, reviews projects for compliance, and approves exceptions. Architecture linkage connects the IT governance decisions about architecture with project design decisions. Business linkage ensures that business goals are translated effectively into project  goals. Business linkage coordinates projects, connects them to larger transformation efforts, and focuses projects on attacking specific problems in the best possible way. Alignment linkage mechanisms ensure ongoing communication and negotiation between IT and business concerns. Business IT relationship mangers and Business unit CIOs are typically a critical linkage fro translating back and forth between business goals and IT constraints. 10) The three ingredients of engagement that create business value are IT governance, Project management and Linking mechanisms. Clear, specific, and actionable objectives: In order to be effective, IT engagement models clarify strategic objectives so standardization and integration requirements are clear. Motivation to meet company goals: Formal incentives such as bonus plans, annual reviews, etc help ensure focus from business unit leaders and project managers on company, business unit and project goals Enforcement authority: Formal enforcements such as complementary to formal incentives help build an effort’s credibility. Enforcement provides a process for changing, discontinuing, or granting an exception to a project that is not compliant with the target enterprise architecture. Early Intervention and prevention: In order to prevent bad solutions form being deigned, IT groups engage with business projects during the earliest stages of development to prevent bad solutions from being designed in the first place and also to learn how to improve target architecture. Transparent, regular, two-way communication: Good engagement ensures that everyone is clear on how the model works. Alignment and coordination are achieved and maintained through regular dialogue between business and IT and across business units.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Developing An Online Media Strategy Annotated Bibliography Marketing Essay

Developing An Online Media Strategy Annotated Bibliography Marketing Essay This article presents the thoughts that for business owners, having a Web site is no longer the one thing necessary for a successful online presence. Engaging customers through social and interactive features is fast becoming the new standard. These days, Internet marketing requires a coordinated, branded, cohesive approach. Internet marketing efforts yield little value if you cannot measure the results. The author discusses the various ways to find where a firms traffic is coming from, and more importantly, on which page it goes away. Sometimes people want to do business with you, but leave your Web site because they are confused. Determining your biggest exit pages allows you to refine their content until more people are converting to suspects, prospects and finally customers. Continue to work on improving your Web site by implementing a cohesive Web strategy and taking advantage of many elements to reach potential customers in whatever part of the Web they use. The costs are small and the profits large (Altschuler, 2009). This article was helpful by giving advice on how to choose web-based strategies to grow a business in size and reputation. Andrewes, J. (2006). Developing an online press office for Cardiff Council: Principles of excellence. Journal of Communication Management 10(2), 156-173. Retrieved from Emerald database. This article discusses the development of an online press office at Cardiff Council in the United Kingdom. It presents an analysis of key issues of public relations theory as they apply to the provision of an online press office. This is supported by a survey of journalists who have used Cardiffs media service and enhanced by assessment of examples of existing best practice across local authorities in the UK. Andrewes states that there has been a considerable volume of work published on general internet usability and principles for communications, but there is little guidance for Public Relations practitioners on how to apply communications principles and best practice specifically to electronic communication with the media and none at all for local government. Indeed general media relations guidance for local government does not yet even take account of the advent and impact of the internet, with most recent publications dating back ten years or more (Andrewes, 2006). This article w as helpful in discussing the need for PR practitioners to have a framework for the creation of an online media service based on public relation practices. Barson, D. (2009). Leveraging Social Media to Grow Your Beauty Brand. Global Cosmetic Industry, 177(10), 22-23. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article discusses the need for a good social media plan. Such a plan can drive sales and build consumer relationships. The author believes that when creating the plan certain rules must be followed, not the least of which is maintaining brand image. Companies worldwide as well as those within the United States are utilizing social media to present their firms to an ever-growing connected world. Whether creating business pages on Facebook or sending out promos in 140 characters or less on Twitter, marketers are turning to the Web to both drive sales and build consumer interaction for long-term success. As the world of technology changes, businesses must adjust with the times and online media is a fascinating and effective tool for building a brand (Barson, 2009). Berman, S. J., Abraham, S., Battino, B., Shipnuck, L., and Neus, A., (2007). New business models for the new media world. Strategy Leadership 35(4), 23-30. Retrieved from Emerald database. This article attempts to examine the conflict between new and traditional media and explore future industry competitive scenarios. Four primary business models are identified traditional media, walled communities, content hyper-syndication and new platform aggregation. The research also found evidence of another developing conflict that it calls the media divide. The new media world has arrived. Its a wild frontier market where youthful demographics are the prize and tech-savvy adventurists lead the way. In this digital gold rush, Internet successes such as YouTube and MySpace, and their associated audience growth rates, are the envy of broadcast TV and the rest of the entertainment establishment (Berman, Abraham, Battino, Shipnuck, Neus, 2007). To examine the clash between new and traditional media and explore future industry scenarios, the authors conducted a study that included interviews with leaders of media companies and an in-depth analysis of the factors that are shaping th e industry outlook. This article was helpful in highlighting two polar-opposite trends that mark the conflict between new and old media. Bohi, H., (2010, January). To Tweet, or Not to Tweet? That is the question. Alaska Business Monthly 26(1), 80-81. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article discusses the popularity of social media marketing and networking and the mania surrounding the top media channels Twitter, Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn, YouTube, Flickr, blogs and other online communities. On Facebook alone, there are more than 300 million active users who are 35 or older and 50 percent of these log on daily. More than 8 billion minutes are spent on Facebook every day, worldwide. Twitterholics have more than 18 million followers and that number is expected to hit 26 million over the next year (Bohi, 2010). Social media marketing includes using social networks, online communities, blogs or any other collaborative Internet form of media for marketing, sales, public relations and customer service. Although well-written, informative, and entertaining content remains critical, the difference between this method and older marketing tactics is social media is about engaging the customer, not simply giving them a sales pitch. This article provides insight into the many choices of social media marketing. Brown, L., Gallagher, S.M., and Brown, C. (2008). How CEOs can promote a strong market culture. Strategy Leadership 36(5), 28-33. Retrieved from Emerald database. This article presents recommendations for executive priorities, focusing on changes in the realm of culture. The authors believe that corporate culture, if correctly aligned with the external environment, is the key to long-term organizational success. The paper aims to explain how CEOs can take an abstract concept like culture, visualize it, and take steps to harness its power to create enduring competitive advantage in the marketplace. The authors hypothesize that a strong market culture exhibits high ratings on six dimensions of corporate beliefs and behaviors related to: customer insight, competitor awareness, collaborative approach, criteria for decisions, CEO leadership, and a deep organizational commitment and contribution of all functions to creation of superior value for customers. A market culture is defined by: (1) how the overarching culture of a business focuses attention on markets, (2) the skills a business uses to create value for customers, and (3) the level of belie f that the ultimate purpose of the business is to create superior customer value, profitably (Brown, Gallagher, Brown, 2008). This article was helpful in discussing specific steps for leaders to take to foster growth in each dimension. Fjeld, K. and Molesworth, M. (2006). PR practitioners experiences of, and attitudes towards, the internets contribution to external crisis communication. Corporate Communications: An International Journal 11(4), 391-405. Retrieved from Emerald database. This paper aims to promote better understanding of how the internet is used as part of crisis communication. Today the web plays a significant role in disseminating information and that online communication allows organizations to achieve multi-level communication. The paper reports on data collected from in-depth interviews with ten senior Public Relation practitioners in order to understand their experiences and attitudes. The article identifies a range of attitudes of executives, formed by recent experience. Although generally preferred, two-way communication with stakeholders is not always practical. This, along with their preference for existing approaches, and ignorance about the internet formed their views about online communication. The result was that some regarded the internet as inferior in terms of its ability to achieve traditional tasks and because of its potential for undesirable dialogue. When the web was acknowledged as useful it tended to be considered as supplement ary to existing approaches. There was little recognition of the need for online dialogue (Fjeld Molesworth, 2006). This paper was helpful in articulating a range of positive and negative attitudes towards the use of the internet for crisis communication, based on the experiences of senior PR practitioners. Getting the social media on your side: Marketing specialists must embrace the world of technology. (2010). Strategic Direction 26(2), 6-7. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article discusses the immediacy of the Internet and the effect it can have on a company and its relationship and reputation with its various publics. The authors use this article to explain that businesses ignore the power social media can exert at their peril, and must learn how to embrace them positively. The social media encompass an exceptionally wide path, combining everything from social networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook to business networking sites, Podcasts, news delivery sites and collaborative websites such as Wikipedia. They offer a huge challenge to companies which have been used for so long to coordinating and controlling their promotional efforts through such established, traditional channels as public relations, advertising, personal selling and direct marketing. Social media have brought into the mix a wide range of online, word-of-mouth forums which now play a massive part in influencing consumer behavior (Getting Social Media, 2010). This article wa s helpful in discussing how managers have lost control over the way information reaches the public while simultaneously giving ways traditional communication can be used to develop new strategies. Gurau, C. (2008). Integrated online marketing communication: implementation and management. Journal of Communication Management 12(2), 169-184. Retrieved from Emerald database. This article discusses the particularities of integrated marketing communication (IMC) in the online environment. Both secondary and primary knowledge are examined in order to identify the various meanings of the integrated online marketing communication, the opportunities and challenges raised by online communication, and the structure of an effective coordinated online marketing communication system. The author attempts to investigate the manners of implementing IMC in an online environment. Based on an analysis of the specific characteristics of the online environment and audiences, and on information collected through face-to-face interviews with managers of United Kingdom consumer retail firms, the meanings of the integrated marketing communication in the online environment, as well as the challenges and the opportunities created by the internet for the implementation of an online IMC process, are identified and discussed. The article was informative in that given todays technol ogical advances, using them is not always the first choice in form of communication of todays managers. Halepete, J., and Park, J. (2006). Competitive e-tailing strategies for fair trade organizations: Benchmarking against successful commercial organizations. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 10(4), 491-507. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. The purpose of this article is to provide competitive internet retailing strategies for fair trade organizations using a benchmarking approach. It provides valuable managerial implications for fair trade organizations focusing on web site operations. Information availability and strategic web site management can attract customers to make purchases on fair trade web sites and, in turn, enable organizations to sustain and grow in the competitive marketplace. This study was designed to provide competitive e-tailing strategies using a benchmarking approach. The benchmarking will guide firms to compare and measure their performance with outstanding performers, achieve the best business outcomes, and in turn, advantage producers and artisans in developing countries (Halepete Park, 2006). The authors integrated classifications of information load on the web site that can influence customer shopping experiences and purchase decisions: company information, product information, distribution c hannels, customer service, and web site quality. This article was helpful in discussing benchmarking as a technique through which businesses constantly compare and measure their performances with outstanding performers and provides competitive advantages to businesses. Harridge-March, S. (2004). Electronic marketing, the new kid on the block. Marketing Intelligence Planning 22(3), 297-309. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article considers electronic marketing, using the familiar framework of the seven Ps of marketing product, price, promotion, place, process, physical evidence, and people in an attempt to evaluate electronic marketing and its potential contribution to marketing in general. The author concludes that while not every marketer embraces the use of the Internet, this newcomer has become an accepted part of marketing activity. The article concludes that while electronic marketing does not yet have the potential to replace traditional marketing efforts, it should be seen as a valuable and complementary tool, and managers should embrace new technology in order to create greater value for customers. Issues such as branding, public relations, direct marketing, advertising, personal selling and information seeking are considered in an attempt to evaluate electronic marketing and its potential contribution to the marketing practice. The author states that in the United Kingdom by 2001, ove r a third of adults in Great Britain who accessed the Internet also purchased goods or services through it, meaning, of course, that two-thirds do not shop online, and some writers cite uncertainty and/or risk as preventing consumers from doing so. Some companies have been criticized for apparently thinking that all Internet shoppers are the same, instead of realizing that there are many reasons why a customer may visit a site. This results, particularly, in a lack of commitment for the purchase of high-involvement goods in this way (Harridge-March, 2004). This article was helpful in recognizing that for every potential customer trusting the provider sufficiently to enter into a transaction is paramount, and communicating trustworthiness remains a challenge Hearn, G., Foth, M., and Gray, H. (2009). Applications and implementations of new media in corporate communications: An action research approach. Corporate Communications: An International Journal 14(1), 49-61. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article is about advances in new media and the web technology that is making it easier for organizations and their employees, suppliers, customers and stakeholders to participate in the creation and management of content. New media and Web services can be employed to work in conjunction with conventional communication tools such as phone, fax and corporate intranets. This approach enables organizations to maintain and strengthen existing stakeholder relationships, but also reach out and build relationships with new stakeholders who were previously inaccessible or invisible. The authors review and explore the uses of new media in organizations. We find that this dynamic area has only been the subject of a few rigorous studies so far that map out current uses of new media. Since new media are deployed in such a dynamic fashion, we argue that organizations are best to adopt an experimental customer-centered approach at this stage of the evolution of the technology both in terms of use and implementation. It also fosters the participation and engagement of external stakeholders (Hearn Gray, 2009). This article was useful in understanding how a corporate communication strategy can leverage current trends. Jensen, M. B., (2008). Online marketing communication potential: Priorities in Danish firms and advertising agencies. European Journal of Marketing 42(3/4), 502-525. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article discusses where resources should be directed to utilize online marketing communication (OMC) further, including the identification of the diversity of OMC adoption, prioritization and future potential. The internet has had a tremendous impact on many processes in companies. Marketing is probably one of the areas most affected due to the possibilities offered in online communications. Thus, OMC has grown to be an important part of a companys promotional mix. Whereas OMC in its early days was limited to mainly the implementation of corporate websites, greater possibilities exist today. OMC today consists of multiple activities (Jensen, 2008). This article was helpful in giving details on the diversification of the implementation of online marketing communication, the future potential, and where resources should be directed to utilize OMC further. Kane, G.C., Fichman, R. G., Gallaugher, J., Glaser, J. (2009, November). Community relations. Harvard Business Review 87(11), 45-50. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article describes the changes wrought by social media platforms and shows how organizations can make the most of new media frontiers. With social media, society has moved beyond the era of stand-alone, static web pages. Todays communities actively post and vet information. Users increasingly treat these venues as their first stop in gathering data and forming an opinion. A recent Pew study found that nearly 40% of Americans say they have doubted a medical professionals opinion or diagnosis because it conflicted with information theyd found online. If users put that much faith in what they learn on the internet, what will they be willing to believe if members of a social media forum start trashing your organization? And are you prepared to handle it when it happens? (Kane, Gallaugher, Glaser, 2009). This article was helpful in informing that a companys social media team must develop policies and strategies for managing online communities, both to abate negative consequences and to foster positive relations. Karagozoglu, N. and Lindell, M. (2004). Electronic commerce strategy, operations, and performance in small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 11(3), 290-301. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article explores the electronic commerce involvement of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in terms of the strategic, operational, and performance aspects. SMEs tend to pursue e-commerce strategies associated with customer base expansion and customer service consistent with their bricks-and-mortar competitive strategies and build e-commerce operations consistent with their e-commerce strategies. These e-commerce strategies also contribute to the SMEs sales growth and profitability. Adoption of e-commerce has evolved from rudimentary simple Web site construction applications to more sophisticated customer service and personalization models (Reynolds, 2000). Competitive advantage and profit considerations in the adoption of e-commerce are crucial for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in that they have limited financial slack to experiment with new approaches and limited cushion for failure. A plethora of failure by the pure dot-com companies with unproven business m odels have constituted a caveat for the bricks-and-mortar companies to exercise due diligence in venturing into e-commerce. This article was helpful in explaining the effects of e-commerce on brick-and-mortar businesses. Making Your E-voice Heard. (2008). Wearables Business, 12(3), 28. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article discusses that companies in nearly every market, from book publishing to bridal wear, are jumping on the YouTube and blogging bandwagons and taking advantage of the Internets ability to spread information quickly through channels such as e-mail and social networking. Whether a highly produced, TV-quality Webcast or something shot with a handheld camera, video can make a big splash online. Some businesses are putting such content on their Web sites and making it available on YouTube or social networking sites like MySpace, with remarkable success (Making Your, 2008). This article was helpful in explaining how viral-marketing can be used to spread information in short time with little effort. Martinsons, M.G. (2006). Strategic management lessons from e-commerce. Handbook of Business Strategy 7(1), 337-340. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article explains the importance of a sound business idea, good market knowledge, long-term planning, external relationships, and balanced business development. The emergence of a new technology typically brings both opportunities and risks. With the emergence of the internet, both the opportunities and the risks have been enormous for entrepreneurs, business managers, investors, consultants, and others. Hundreds of thousands of new enterprises have been started all over the world with the hope of capitalizing on the opportunities that has emerged from the commercialization of the internet (Martinsons, 2006). This article was useful in summarizing the first internet-driven ventures, and highlighting important lessons for strategic management. Palmer, A. and Koenig-Lewis, N. (2009). An experiential, social network-based approach to direct marketing. Direct Marketing: An International Journal 3(3), 162-176. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article discusses the direct marketing challenges and opportunities associated with the emergence of social network media. Companies need to address target audiences both directly and also indirectly through social media. The purpose of this article was to provide a review of the changing media landscape of direct marketing, and proposes a model of direct and indirect targeting of buyers. While many in the marketing community are scratching their heads wondering how the recent generation of web-based social media will generate profits, this paper takes the perspective of direct marketing by asking why and how a message sent by a company may be more effective if it is targeted at individuals through social network media. In particular, the notion is explored that users experience of using social media will predispose them to look more favorably upon a company sponsored message when it is embedded in social media, rather than targeted directly at the individual. The challenge for direct marketing is how to achieve a position at the center that combines the seller, the buyer and the community (Palmer Koenig-Lewis, 2009). This article was useful in explaining how the experience of someone using a social network site can be mutually beneficial to both the buyer and seller. Rowley, J. (2004). Just another channel? Marketing communications in e-business. Marketing Intelligence Planning 22(1), 24-41. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article discusses the role the Internet plays as both a marketing and communications channel. Some practitioners and academics have dismissed the Internet and the current level of business interest in the Internet as hype, arguing that the Internet does not offer any new business models, or new opportunities for creating customer value. This position denies the central significance of relationships in business activity. Relationships are important at both individual and organizational level. Relationships within the value chain both within organizations and between organizations are crucial to the creation of competitive advantage and the generation of unique propositions regarding customer value (Rowley, 2004). This article was helpful in exploring the establishment and maintenance of relationships between consumers and companies as being the heart of customer attraction and retention. Rowley, J. (2004). Online branding. Online Information Review28(2), 131-138. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. The role of brands and branding in the new economy that is characterized by digitization and globalization are attracting considerable attention. Taking the organizational perspective the challenges for branding in online environments relate to: the message capacity of Web pages, the need to integrate branding and marketing communications across different channels, the trend towards organizational value propositions, brands as search keys, and the opportunity to link and develop brand positions, globalization, and the increased engagement of the public sector with branding. Online branding is discussed in nearly every book on e-marketing or e-business. In an electronic shopping environment where physical interaction is reduced and product qualities and benefits must be distilled and captured in a way that can be communicated over the wires, online branding may be increasingly important. Others argue that with the wealth of information on the Web at their fingertips, coupled with inte lligent agents and search engines to help them locate the information, products and services that they need users will no longer need to rely on the shorthand of brand. Instead they will gather detailed information on products and services and make their own judgments on the suitability of a product making brands superfluous (Rowley, 2004). This article was helpful in explaining some of the unique aspects of online branding. Srivastava, M., Sharma, M. (2008). The Role of Emotional Appeals in Internet Advertising: A Study of the Contributing Factors Involved. ICFAI Journal of Management Research, 7(9), 27-36. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article discusses online media and how its increasing usage rate has changed the marketers world. Internet advertising has captured the imagination of marketers, who see in it an enormous potential to raise the profile of their brands. Companies are moving online across the spectrum of marketing activities, from building awareness to after-sales service. In the light of the widespread use of the Internet, the marketers and advertisers target their consumers by developing an emotional connection. Today, most of the Internet advertisements are created on the basis of emotional integration appeals. The evolution of online media and its increasing usage rate have changed the marketers world. The spread of wired Internet networks has opened new vistas for advertisers to earn more revenue by exploring its vast and growing reach. Adoption of Internet advertising has become a key component of marketing strategy. Internet advertising provides a popular avenue to interact and communicate with the customers (Srivastava Sharma, 2008). This article was helpful in providing insight into the factors responsible for developing emotional appeal, and ways in which Internet advertising can contribute to the formation of emotional bonding between consumer and company. Tench, R., Bowd, R., and Jones, B. (2007). Perceptions and perspectives: corporate social responsibility and the media. Journal of Communication Management 11(4). 348-370. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article discusses the importance of developing understanding of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and the Media. Reports on differing media interpretations, perceptions and perspectives of CSR and how they are prone to shift and change in part depending on the perceived definition and issues are discussed. Public Relations practitioners and policy makers should find how the media interprets and understands CSR of interest. Existing concepts and frameworks have the potential to be further developed and informed by these practice-based findings. Real-world application has the potential to shape, guide and inform theoretical constructs. Increasing media interest in CSR and the primary data while forming frameworks also furthers understanding of the concept from academic, business practitioner and stakeholders perspectives (Tench, Bowd, Jones, 2007). Further details on other strategies are offered. Vonder Haar, S. (2008). Its all about integration. Streaming Media, 5(1), 31-38. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article discusses the growing intersection of web-conferencing and videoconferencing technologies illustrating the increasingly important role that online multimedia is playing in the development of integrated communications strategies for businesses. Among companies that have deployed online audio and video technology, the two most frequently deployed applications integrating multimedia are executive presentations and employee training. Historically online multimedia has uniquely addressed the communications challenges that large companies face in distributing information to far-flung networks of employees. Web audio and video provide a forum for large company leaders to communicate directly with a global workforce on a cost-effective basis. As a result, todays enterprise multimedia sector is largely tuned to address the internal communications needs of these large corporate customers who have illustrated the most willingness to invest in online audio and video capabilities (Vo nder Haar, 2008). This article was helpful in explaining that not only is the process of communication considered essential but, in this case, the content of the communications is vital as well. Vrasidas, C. and Zembylas, M. (2004). Online professional development: Lessons from the field. Education Training 46(6/7), 326-334. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. This article discusses the lessons learned from applying a framework for the professional development of teachers, drawing on three interrelated theoretical areas: constructivism situated and distributed cognition, and communities of practice. Online environments are rapidly expanding as a venue for professional development in education, business, and industry. One of the more pressing questions faced by the teaching profession today is whether this idealized vision of professional development can be realized online. The demands of work and family life for teachers, many of whom are women, underline the need for professional development activities that can be delivered anytime, anywhere. Distance education has been predominantly based on approaches which emphasized a linear and objectivist approach to learning and teaching. Given that technology increases the opportunities for interaction among tutors, learners, content and technological tools, it is important to design relevant lear ning environments for rich interaction in the context of e-learning (Vrasidas Zembylas, 2004). This article was helpful in analyzing the need in preparing instructors to teach online classes and what that involves. Wilenius, M. and Malmelin, N. (2009). Towards sustainably managed media organizations: reflections on the future of responsible business in media industry. Business Strategy Series 10(3), 129-138. Retrieved from Emerald database. This article offers insight into the future of responsible business in the media industry. The focus of analysis is on the views and opinions of leading CEOs in media companies in about responsible business and the social and organ

Friday, September 20, 2019

HEHA Strategy for Obesity

HEHA Strategy for Obesity Strategy for Obesity As health indicators have been better in New Zealand, the development of well being has not been consistently everywhere. Obesity is one of the most common public health problems all over the world that is increasing. It also has related some problems which include  heart disease,  stroke, type II  diabetesand certain  cancers. One of the countries is New Zealand, the number of obesity and overweight has been increasing ever since the 80s, most of them are aged 15 years and above (31%) and about one out of nine children aged 2 to 14 (11%), New Zealand Health survey (2012/13). This essay will talk about the HEHA Strategy on obesity; techniques, procedure and its programs. Obesity is a disease of having too much body fat. It is not similar as being overweight, which means weighing too much, (Wikipedia). The response of New Zealand commenced on 2003 to obesity is theâ€Å"Healthy Eating-Healthy Action- Oranga Kai Oranga Pumau (HEHA) Strategy†with the a vision of an environment and society where individuals, families or whÄ nau, and communities are supported to eat healthy, live physically active, and to attain as well as to maintain a healthy body† in simpler terms it concentrate on the growing problems such as poor eating lifestyle, lack of exercise, and obesity. The Health department has specially made a group of researchers to evaluate this said Strategy for the reason that the HEHA Strategy explicitly identifies the significance of the evaluation. The Strategy is lively and it may be influenced by altering political and communal contexts. The complication of the environment, the program and the problem is reflected in the complexity of the assessment. The Strategys structure also recognises the importance of reducing the inequalities in health and it involves the treaty which the Crown and MÄ ori signed in 1840 which is considered to be New Zealands founding document, the â€Å"Treaty of Waitangi†. The viewpoint of this treaty is about partnership, participation and protection which is enshrined so much in the health legislation of New Zealand. Particular challenges have an effect on the assessment of the HEHA Strategy and other similar strategies. It is also a complicated intervention that is stirring in a complex condition and that encloses many not related aspects possibly to influence nutrition and physical activity. Moreover, this strategy’s aim of improving health, increasing physical activity and reducing obesity are long term goals and it may not be accomplished within the estimated time. The extent of nutritional behaviour is to be aware of the achievement of this said Strategy. The result that may be related to the HEHA strategy will be commencing, which is a Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NPAS). It is of course a survey and its plan is a continuing quarterly survey that set up four panels of respondents, each of them will be interviewed annually in three years. All of the chosen country representatives exist to have datasets which comprise info on nutrition, physical activity patterns and body size. It will later be analysed and used to make criterion to be compared to the estimates of the NPAS. A number of six thousand four hundred people which are all fifteen years old and above will be recruited to take part in the said activity. The partakers will be recruited from over six hundred random mesh blocks. Maori, Pacific Islander plus a list of deprivation have been sampled to help the estimates of the groups to be calculated. The trial reviews have looked at the past model for Ministry of Health nationwide surveys using the same group sampling met hods. This involves the certainty of a selected populace level rate that can be estimated by how old they are and where they came from, to make it possible into a precision of the estimates for observing the people changes in nourishment, the annual Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) survey will also be used for three years. This instrument for survey is made up of tons of questions from other state surveys and also some fresh questions. The question includes something about socio-demographic factors, physical activities and consumption of foods that has high fat, salt, sugar and MSG. The tactics of HEHA on creating a helpful setting also include questions regarding societal and environmental factors. The population’s estimate value will be copied for evaluating the multistage cluster sample by the standard methods. An examination will also be done to know the changes in health. In relation with the previous baseline, there will be a prepared national representative datasets. There are also programmes in schools that involve the HEHA strategy. An example of this is â€Å"The Fruit in Schools programme†. Its plan is to target lowest income decile schools. The students at the schools are supplied with a free quantity of fruit during school days. The schools that joined the programme are to carry out an entire school or society approach to make a supporting environment and should also supports healthy consumption, physical activities and smoke alcohol free. The schools should work in clusters to sustain itself in fruit provision in over three years. Here are some info’s of the programme; term four of 2005 phase one of Fruit in Schools programme was introduced to Sixty required schools in six District Health Boards (DHB), in term two of 2006 phase two went to fifty four schools more than a total of thirteen DHBs, in term four of 2006 phase three was rolled out to just about one hundred fifty six schools joined, covering all the twenty one DHBs. The entire number of schools that joined in all the phases is about two hundred seventy, and the total number of the children participating is approximately fifty six thousand. The New Zealand Council for Educational Research and Health Outcomes International is consistently evaluating the Fruit in Schools programme. The evaluation includes formative process and outcome components, Ministry of Health (2008). In conclusion, the HEHA strategy targets the communal and environmental factors, it supports healthy eating, living active or simply living healthy. It also has a lot of plans to promote health like the â€Å"NPAS† to know what the people want so the MOH can take action and â€Å"the fruit in school programme† which targets the children to take care of their health. REFERENCES Capital and Coast District Health Board. (2008). HEALTHY EATING HEALTHY ACTION: ORANGA KAI ORANGA PUMAU (MINISTRY APPROVED PLAN 2) from Ministry of Health. (2004) TRACKING THE OBESITY EPIDEMIC: New Zealand 1977–2003. Wellington: Ministry of Health Ministry of Health. (2008). HEALTHY EATING – HEALTHY ACTION ORANGA KAI – ORANGA PUMAU: PROGRESS ON IMPLEMENTING THE HEHA STRATEGY 2008. Wellington: Ministry of Health. Ministry of Health. (2003). HEALTHY EATING – HEALTHY ACTION ORANGA KAI – ORANGA PUMAU:A STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK 2003 Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health. Ministry of Health. (2008). A PORTRAIT OF HEALTH. KEY RESULTS OF THE 2006/07 NEW ZEALAND HEALTH SURVEY. Wellington: Ministry of Health OBESITY retrieved from OBESITY BY AGE 25 LINKED TO SEVERE LATE-LIFE OBESITY (2014) retrieved from Rachael M McLean, Janet A Hoek, Sue Buckley, Bronwyn Croxson, Jacqueline Cumming, Terry H Ehau, Ausaga Faasalele Tanuvasa, Margaret Johnston, Jim I Mann and Grant Schofield. (2009) BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, BioMed Central Ltd, New Zealand THE 2012/13 NEW ZEALAND HEALTH SURVEY retrieved from TRACKING THE OBESITY OF EPIDEMIC (2004) retrived from

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Russia :: essays research papers fc

Comparative Politics Gerard Chretien RUSSIA: POLITICAL STRUCTURE: Summary: Why the democratic structure in Russia is proving to be unsuccessful. INTRODUCTION: The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, disintegrating into thirteen different states. Ever since the political structure of Russia has been viable and lacks stability. Many reasons can be cited for this instability out of which the bearish economy and a shaky democratic system are the main causes. ANALYSIS: The reforms taken after Russia’s disintegration have yet to be proved fruitful. The economy is in no better shape then before and politically Russia has great set backs in the name of the ongoing war with Muslim freedom fighters in Chechnya. â€Å"The most important factor that needs to be established is economic growth. Successful economic development will ease the transition and enable violence and dissention among the races very avoidable. If resources are abundant and properly distributed then multiple markets can grow. However, when resources run scarce and competition arises for limited assets then violence and animosity become the only plausible alternatives. If two industries fiercely compete for limited resources then one is likely to be forced out of the market. A sound and developing economy is essential for the happiness and orderly conduct of the people (Barner-Barry & Hody, 1995)(1). Another problem cited in the progress is the difficulty of transition from communism to democracy when the government officials are trained in the old system. The process of privatization requires lengths of time and willingness of the people to take upon the businesses for which they require full governmental protection, easy paper work and full rights over their property. â€Å"If Russia is to make the transition, it must rediscover civil society (the informal network of family, church, service organization and the like). Strong civil society provides the political culture that supports liberal institutions, but the Communist Party deliberately destroyed many elements of civil society to ensure party dominance. Russia faces moral, economic, and legal gaps in its civil society. Hence Russia has a difficult road to achieve democracy.†(2) It was a widely held belief that with the fall of the Soviet Union Russia would make a rapid transition into democracy and free markets. â€Å"This overlooks the crucial role of political culture in shaping and supporting political and economic institutions. Russia did not have the political culture appropriate to western-style institutions and so became chaotic and lawless. For Russians, democracy became a dirty word, as it symbolized Russia’s troubles.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

American Corporations and Internet Pornography Essay -- Exploratory Es

American Corporations and Internet Porn      Ã‚   In this essay, we shall consider the so-called "reputable" mainstream American companies that are reaping huge profits from Internet porn, as well as related considerations.    Marriott, Westin, and Hilton are known for their pornographic video deliveries to paying rooms, a practice which Omni Hotels discontinued when confronted by the American Family Association. On the other hand, Internet porn companies like Yahoo! In its x-rated Geocities sites, was not intimidated by AFA's threats. Instead, it took US Attorney General Ashcroft's strong action to intimidate Yahoo! into only a partial-withdrawal from Internet porn. However, Yahoo! Still retains marginally pornographic material on websites.    AT&T is the biggest American company that has accommodated itself to the pornography boom. Its cable division, AT&T Broadband, distributes to subscribers the explicit porn channel, The Hot Network; and this has unfortunate repercussions in the world of Internet pornography. In the spring of 2001, an interfaith coalition of relig...

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Analysis of My Big Fat Greek Wedding

During the movie, My Big Fat Greek Wedding, there was a lot of positive and negative communication that influenced the main character’s life decisions. The story is about a young woman, named Toula, that is of Greek decent who is fearful of being stuck in the life she is now living. She is a frumpy girl that works in her family’s restaurant because she has not been able to find a Greek man to marry, and because of this, her family claims that she is old and has failed in life. She is allowed to attend college, which in turn, gives her new confidence and she is able to fall in love with a non-Greek man that is named, Ian.During the movie she struggles to get her family to accept him as the man she loves, and she also finally comes to terms with her heritage and cultural identity. At the end of the movie, Ian is accepted into the family, he becomes a baptized Greek, agrees to marry in the Greek Orthodox Church and participate in the Greek culture. Despite the happy ending of the movie, Toula struggled to follow the rules and values of her culture, practiced nonverbal communication with Ian, and received empathy from her mother while Ian had to deal with a language barrier of English and Greek.Toula has a hard time accepting the culture of her family. From the movie, it seems as though the Greek culture is a high context culture. High context cultures have a strong sense of tradition and history, and they do not change much over time. In the beginning of the movie, Toula states that her family expects her to â€Å"marry a Greek boy, make Greek babies, and feed everyone in the family till the day she dies. † Since she has not been married she is stuck working in the family restaurant until she does. She breaks tradition when she starts dating and then marries, Ian, because he is not a â€Å"Greek boy, and not from a Greek family. She also does the unthinkable since she marryed Ian and changes the history and tradition of the culture, as high c ontext cultures do not change over time. It is also a tradition for the Greeks to have big families; Toula explains to Ian that she has twenty-seven first cousins and Ian seems to be very interested in what she is telling him because he only has two cousins. Ian’s family is American and they are the opposite of Toula’s family, they are part of the low context culture, like many other American families.One of the biggest differences is that Toula’s family is loud, big and always together and Ian’s family is small, quite, and only see each other on special occasions. Toula and Ian practiced different forms of nonverbal communication during the movie. Nonverbal communication means messages expressed by nonlinguistic means. Ian and Toula have both used face and eyes as a form of nonverbal communication. When Toula was still working as a waitress in her family restaurant, the dancing Zorba’s, she was caught staring at Ian by Ian and his friend.Her stari ng suggests that she was very interested in Ian and thought that he was handsome but Ian’s friend assumed that she was crazy because of how she was staring at Ian. Toula also caught Ian staring at her in the window of the travel agency that her aunt owns. Ian’s staring at Toula suggested that he was interested in her and thought that she was pretty. Ian used substituting, a form of nonverbal communication, to say hi to Toula in the window of the travel agency by waving and smiling at her. There were no words spoken to each other during this scene.Toula used body orientation to hide from Ian in her family’s restaurant behind the counter as he was leaving. She did this because she may have been embarrassed for getting caught staring at him and she may have also been shy. The same thing also happened in the travel agency when Toula hid behind the water dispenser when Ian turned his back to her to talk with his friend. When he turned back around he could not find he r and he walked off. Before Ian ran into the older lady on the street in front of the travel agency, he was using the gesture of possibly a duck, to get Toula’s attention and to make her laugh.This gesture made her laugh and smile and it was able to help her loosen up and feel a little more comfortable. Ian had to deal with the language barrier a few times in the movie, but there were two scenes that were quite comical. Ian asked Nick, how do you say â€Å"thank you† in Greek and he also asked Angelo, Toula’s cousin, how to say â€Å"everyone let’s go in the house,† and both times he was told something entirely different. This is similar to the â€Å"English-speaking representative of a U. S. soft drink manufacturer naively drew laughs from Mexican customers when she offered free samples of Fresca soda pop.In Mexican slang, the word fresca means ‘lesbian’(Adler). † In both of these cases, Ian and the representative thought they were saying one thing but it meant something else in the other language. Empathy was shown in the movie when Toula was turned down by her father for wanting to go to college for computer classes. When this happened her mother, Maria, showed empathy. Empathy means being able to experience the world form the other person’s point of view. Maria explained to Toula that Toula was just like her when she was her age.Maria stated that she knew how she felt and she would talk to Toula’s father about the computer classes. Maria showed the emotional dimension that helped her to get closer to Toula’s feelings. She also showed genuine concern for the welfare her daughter Toula. I can relate to people being interested in my culture just as Ian was very interested in Toula’s culture because it is different, but unlike Toula, I enjoy my culture and I embrace it. I have found that having a different culture, because most of my family is not from America, as a good thing.E ven though it makes you a little different, it also makes you unique and it adds to your identity as a person. If I were in the situations that Toula was in, I would have done some things different. If I were her, I would have told my parents before anything got serious, because it was shown in the movie that lies only lead to more problems. Telling them early that she found someone non-Greek would have also cause problems but because they wanted her to get married so bad, I think they would have became welcoming sooner.It is important to be proud of your culture and not ashamed because your culture and the people that raise you make you who you are. Also, many facial expressions can be perceived as in ways that you would not want or expect, like Toula getting caught staring at Ian and his friend, thinking that she was a little crazy. So sometimes when communicating nonverbally, it may be best to use words to communicate your actual feelings. ? Works Cited Page(s): 187, Looking Out, Looking In, 13th Edition by Ronald B. Adler, Cengage Learning

Monday, September 16, 2019

A Review of Terry Eagleton’s The Meaning of Life Essay

Yet another non-fiction attempt at explaining the intricacies of life as we know it is in the offing, and the uninformed would most likely lump this particular one with the rest of mediocrity’s spawns. However, the less ignorant would recognize the prestige that is synonymous with the author’s name, which echoes loudly of literary theory and Marxism, in the most acceptable and understandable terms. Terry Eagleton’s discourse on one of the most profound yet unanswerable questions ever to be posed in actual form could have gone two disparate ways: the academic, which would call on the powers of scholarly influence and intervention; and the sardonic, which would debunk all trite and contrived notions about the subject and introduce a new concept that may border between reality and fantasy—or at least within the contexts of Eagleton’s philosophy. But the great theorist, without presenting his work as the millennium’s definitive answer to life and all its meanings, does what he is good at—analysis, study, and intellectualism. The big question in focus is quite applicable, as Eagleton begins, to the different persuasions available, from language to philosophy to civilization. Here is where the Eagleton style of in-depth probing takes place, and readers new and old will always find the author’s signature wit and humour refreshing against the backdrop of the subject’s utter seriousness and complexity. Eagleton builds his argument by citing some of the differences among people, based on their particular eras. He discussed how the issues thrown against faith and organized religion figured prominently in the late nineteenth century, and this brought on the question about life’s meaning in bigger, more insistent ways. Then we see how the great mind forms his own theory, but only after seeing how he provides a comparison between his thinking and those that came before him. The first, most obvious and easiest target would be Christianity and its various interpretations, that declares God as the all-powerful, all-knowing source of the world’s meaning and its corresponding effect on life itself, and the tenet that deems the world chaotic and meaningless without God. Eagleton quickly forges to disprove this established belief, by invoking the theories and discoveries alluded to by science, and how, even without the concept of God, the universe would continue to be an entity independent of anything, with a symmetry and logic that defies any claim on source and end. Eagleton did not agree with the free-flowing, opinion-respecting parameters of post-modernism, either. He found the standard allusions to individualism and realms and contexts of varying interpretations as contrary to the search for meaning; because meaning can only be discovered through dialogue with the world, and any pre-tense of an individual of finding the same unto himself or herself does not operate logically within Eagleton’s study. One must validate his or her particular life meanings with what the world has already set, out of respect and value for a construct that is no longer such, but is really a defined and proven reality that can mix both beauty and logic on the same level. Upon presenting his own personal cause towards providing an answer to the stated question, Eagleton now invokes Aristotelian philosophy to concretise an aspect of the meaning. According to Aristotle, human life’s significance lies within happiness—yet not just mere pleasure. Eagleton agress with this idea, and confirms the classic philosopher’s opinion that happiness may only be received through virtue, wherein virtue is, more than anything, a social practice and not a way of thinking. Therefore, happiness, which is the purpose of life, is also its practical and realisable version. However, all is not completely nice and happy in the Eagleton-Aristotle team-up—the author, after the initial meeting of great minds regarding the ideal integration of politics, ethics and happiness in one ideal society, admonishes the classicist’s expressed elements of a society necessary to attain happiness. That Aristotle defined this as one complete with women and slaves earmarked to carry out any dirty work while man goes forth to traverse the levels of happiness, is an ideal best left in history books and pageant presentations. Eagleton, being the trouper he is, tries to make up for Aristotle’s slip by taking the latter’s happiness concept and raising it one—to centre on the ultimate idea of love. Not erotic love, no, but that among fellow men, and even enemies. As with Aristotle’s original happiness idea, Eagleton’s love construct is a lifestyle, a practical way of giving meaning to life. He goes further by adding the presence of another individual in the equation, with whom love may be realized through mutual support. This refers to space for growth, a means to being one’s best. And, being one of Marx’s greatest disciples, Eagleton qualifies this concept by requiring the individuals be equals for real reciprocity, for the absence of such will render this adjudged purpose and meaning of life futile. The book ends with Eagleton’s inspired way of comparing life with jazz music, where improvisation is key, yet function as a whole. Thus, the author promises the answers to be found in this precise situation—happiness being individual and collective, which can only be realised through love. If any other writer tried to use the same words and the same concepts to give his or her own interpretation, everything would sound fake, and probably even absurd. But Terry Eagleton’s lucid writing and light touch prove that these often-lambasted elements may actually still be understood for what they are, and that love and life are indeed connected—all to provide the meaning we have long wanted to find.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Toefl Treating Pets Like Family Members

The issue of treating pets like family members is a debatable one. On the one hand, pets are charming creatures that mean a lot for their owners. But on the other hand, people should not forget that pets are animals which have specific instincts and habits differ from those of human beings and, as a result, able to do harm to people. However, in the final analysis, I think that pets are good friends of people and shall be treated accordingly. One reason in support of my thinking is that pets like real family members spend together with their families a great amount of time. Pets and their owners do a lot of things together from ordinary home stuff such as playing games, walking and watching TV to going shopping, visiting friends and traveling. When there is a child in a family pets become his little friends that everywhere follow him while parents are busy with their house work. So pets are always near their owners, ready to share owners’ joy and troubles, bringing a lot of fun for the whole family and making family members smile and feel pleased and happy. One would never feel lonely with them. Another reason for my thinking is that some pets are good caretakers. They see to the house, secure their owners and protect them from danger, help to take care of children. Maybe one of the best examples of pets care is dogs that help blind people survive in their everyday life. Pets would never leave their owners alone in a difficult situation. Perhaps, the best reason is that treating pets as family members has a good influence on children’s education. Looking after the pet, children will learn not to be selfish and to think and take care about the others. For the above reasons, I therefore conclude that having pets is an advantage for people and pets owners can really benefit from treating pets like family members.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

The Necessity Of Computer Security

When the first electronic computers emerged from university and military laboratories in the late 1940s and early 1950s, visionaries proclaimed them the harbingers of a second industrial revolution that would transform business, government and industry. But few laymen, even if they were aware of the machines, could see the connection. Experts too, were sceptical. Not only were computers huge, expensive, one-of-a-kind devices designed for performing abstruse scientific and military calculations, such as cracking codes and calculations missile trajectories, they were also extremely difficult to handle. Now, it is clear that computers are not only here to stay, but they have a profound effect on society as well. As John McCarthy, Professor of Computer Science at Stanford University, speculated in 1966: â€Å"The computer gives signs of becoming the contemporary counterpart of the steam engine that brought on the industrial revolution – one that is still gathering momentum and whose true nature had yet to be seen. † Today’s applications of computers are vast. They are used to run ordinary household appliances such as televisions and microwaves, to being tools in the workplaces through word processing, spreadsheets, and graphics software, to unning monumental tasks such as being the heart and soul of the nations tax processing department, and managing the project timetables of the Space Shuttle. It is obvious that the computer is now and always will be inexorably linked to our lives, and we have no choice but to accept this technology and learn how to harness its total potential. With any progressing technology, an unauthorized application can almost be found for it. A computer could and has been used for theft and fraud – for example, as a database and manager of illegal activities such as drug trafficking and pornography. However, we must not just consider the harmful applications of the computer, but also take into account the good that they have caused. When society embraced the computer technology, we have to treat this as an extension of what we already have at hand. This means that some problems that we had before the computer era may also arise now, in the form where computers are an accessory to a crime. One of the problems that society has faced ever since the dawn of civilization is privacy. The issue of privacy on the Internet has risen many arguments for and against having it. The issue of privacy has gotten to the oint where the government of the United States has placed a bill promoting a single chip to encrypt all private material on the Internet. Why is privacy so important? Hiding confidential material from intruders does not necessarily mean that what we keep secret it illegal. Since ancient times, people have trusted couriers to carry their messages. We seal out messages in a envelope when sending mail through the postal service. Using computer and encrypting programs to transfer electronic messages securely is not different from sending a letter the old-fashioned way. This paper will examine he modern methods of encrypting messages and analyse why Phil Zimmerman created an extremely powerful civilian encipherment program, called the PGP, for â€Å"Pretty Good Privacy. In particular, by focusing on cryptography, which was originally intended for military use, this paper will examine just how easy it is to conclude why giving civilians a military-grade encrypting program such as the PGP may be dangerous to national security. Therefore, with any type of new technology, this paper will argue that the application of cryptography for civilian purposes is not just a right, but is also a necessity. Increasingly in today’s era of computer technology, not only banks but also businesses and government agencies are turning to encryption. Computer security experts consider it best and most practical way to protect computer data from unauthorized disclosure when transmitted and even when stored on a disk, tape, of the magnetic strip of a credit card. Two encryption systems have led the way in the modern era. One is the single-key system, in which data is both encrypted and decrypted with the same key, a sequence of eight numbers, each between 0 and 127. The other is a 2-key ystem; in this approach to cryptography, a pair of mathematically complementary keys, each containing as many as 200 digits, are used for encryptions and decryption. In contrast with ciphers of earlier generations, where security depended in part on concealing the algorithm, confidentiality of a computer encrypted message hinges solely on the secrecy of the keys. Each system is thought to encrypt a message so inscrutably that the step-by-step mathematical algorithms can be made public without compromising security. The single key system, named the Data Encryption Standard – DES for short — as designed in 1977 as the official method for protecting unclassified computer data in agencies of the American Federal government. Its evolution began in 1973 when the US National Bureau of Standards, responding to public concern about the confidentiality of computerized information outside military and diplomatic channels, invited the submission of data-encryption techniques as the first step towards an encryption scheme intended for public use. The method selected by the bureau as the DES was developed by IBM researchers. During encryption, the DES algorithm divides a message into blocks f eight characters, then enciphers them one after another. Under control of the key, the letters and numbers of each block are scrambled no fewer than 16 times, resulting in eight characters of ciphertext. As good as the DES is, obsolescence will almost certainly overtake it. The life span of encryption systems tends to be short; the older and more widely used a cipher is, the higher the potential payoff if it is cracked, and the greater the likelihood that someone has succeeded. An entirely different approach to encryption, called the 2-key or public- key system, simplifies the problem of key distribution and management. The approach to cryptography eliminates the need for subscribers to share keys that must be kept confidential. In a public-key system, each subscriber has a pair of keys. One of them is the so-called public key, which is freely available to anyone who wishes to communicate with its owner. The other is a secret key, known only to its owner. Though either key can be used to encipher or to decipher data encrypted with its mate, in most instances, the public key is employed for encoding, and the private key for decoding. Thus, anyone can send a secret message to anyone else by using the addressee’s public key to encrypt ts contents. But only the recipient of the message can make sense of it, since only that person has the private key. A public key cryptosystem is called the PGP, for Pretty Good Privacy. Designed by Phil Zimmerman, this program is freely distributed for the purpose of giving the public the knowledge that whatever communications they pass, they can be sure that it is practically unbreakable. PGP generates a public and private key for the user using the RSA technique. The data is then encrypted and decrypted with the IDEA algorithm – which is similar to the DES, but the work factor to decode the encrypted message by brute orce is much higher than what the DES could provide. The reason why the RSA is used only when generating the keys is that the RSA takes a very long time to encrypt an entire document, where using the RSA on the keys takes a mere fraction of the time. At this time, Zimmerman is bing charged by the US government for his effort in developing the PGP. The government considers encryption as a weapon, and they have established regulations controlling or prohibiting the export of munitions. Since the PGP is a powerful encryption program, it is considered and can be used as a powerful weapon and may be a threat to national security. On the Internet, it is clear that many people all over the world are against the US government’s effort on limiting the PGP’s encryption capabilities, and their reason is that the ban infringes on the people’s right to privacy. The PGP must not be treated only as a weapon, for it contains analogies that are not used in wartime. One of them is authentication. The two-key cryptosystem is designed with authentication in mind: Using someone’s public key to encrypt enables only the owner of the private key to decrypt the same message. In the real world, we use our own signature to prove out identity in signing heques or contracts. There exists retina scanners that check the blood vessels in out eyes, as well as fingerprint analysis devices. These use our physical characteristics to prove our identity. A digital signature generated by a public key cryptosystem is much harder to counterfeit because of the mathematics of factoring – which is an advantage over conventional methods of tests for out identity. Another analogy the PGP has with the real world is the need for security. Banks and corporations employ a trusted courier – in the form of an armoured truck or a guard – to transfer sensitive documents or valuables. However, this is expensive for civilian purposes, and the PGP provides the same or better security when securing civilian information. While many argue that limiting the PGP’s abilities are against the people’s right to privacy, the PGP must also be seen as a necessity as we enter the Information Age. There is currently little or no practical and inexpensive way to secure digital information for civilians, and the PGP is an answer to this problem. Computer privacy must not be treated differently than any other method to make private any documents. Rather, we must consider the computer as a tool and se it as an extension of society’s evolution. Clearly the techniques we employ for computer privacy such as encryption, secure transfers and authentication closely mirrors past efforts at privacy and non-criminal efforts. The government is putting more pressure against the distribution of PGP outside of the United States. One of their main reasons was that since it is freely distributed and thus can be modified in such a way that even the vast computational resources of the US government cannot break the PGP’s secured message. The government could now reason that the PGP can provide criminal rganizations a means of secure communications and storage of their activities, and thus make the law enforcement’s job much harder in tracking criminals down and proving them guilty. Also, we must never forget one of out basic human rights – one that many laid their lives for, is freedom. We have the freedom to do anything we wish that is within the law. The government is now attempting to pass a bill promoting a single algorithm to encrypt and decrypt all data that belongs to its citizens. A multitude of people around the world are opposed to this concept, arguing that it is against their freedom and their privacy.