Friday, January 24, 2020
The Effects of Mono Lake's Hydrology on its Ecosystem Situated at the foothills of the Eastern Sierra Nevada, Mono Lake has an unusual and unique hydrology that is highly influential in shaping the water chemistry (specifically the water's salinity and alkalinity) and biological life that survives there. Mono Lake is a hypersaline, highly alkaline, hydrographically closed basin in which the only natural means of water export is through evaporation. The basin itself was carved out by faulting of tectonic plates that occurred atleast 500,000 years ago. Mono Basin contains up to 7,000 ft. of glacial, fluvial, lacustrine and volcanic deposits in a large structural depression formed in part by down-dropping along the Sierra Nevada fault (Pakiser 1976). In addition to the water evaporated, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (DWP) began diverting Mono Lake's water and approximately 58% of its natural inflow (annually) to supply 13% of the city of Los Angeles's water supply in 1940 (Stine 1991). Because lake volume fluctuates in response to varying inflow and evaporation, the late-water concentration and composition can experience substantial change through time (Rogers 1992). A high concentration of soluble compounds and salts formed inherently as evaporation occurred, and minerals and compounds were left behind. Runoff, erosional sediments and precipitation (rain and snowfall are limited in the Eastern side due to the rainshadow effect) from the Sierra Nevada accumulate in the Mono Basin. Also ephemeral perennial streams from the Sierra Nevada flow into the Mono Basin. Because of this, a great deal of the groundwater and the groundwater hydrological system is dominated by stream losses from the mountains. Fault lines can also be highly influential to the production of groundwater. According to USGS's Ronald Oremland, The lake is usually monomictic, and undergoes one complete winter mixing event induced by the sinking of cold surface waters. However, inputs of large amounts of freshwater into the lake in the early 1980s and again in the late 1990s resulted in episodes of meromixis (Oremland 2000). Jellison predicts that the meromixis phase that is currently occurring will last several decades. Meromixis generally produces buildup of ammonia, sulfide and methane. In many cases diversions of freshwater inputs for irrigation or other human uses have resulted in diminished size and increased salinity (Jellison 1992). Diverting Mono Lake's streams has not only stirred political and environmental controversy over rights but has also led to the waters of Mono Lake being halved in lake volume, reduced by 45 ft.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Privacy and Security Breaches at Acxiom: Case Study Chapter 4 Privacy and Security Breaches at Acxiom: Case Study Chapter 4 Acxiom might be the most important organization that most of us have never heard of. They are the Ã¢â¬Å"worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest processor of consumer data, collecting and analyzing more than a billion records a dayÃ¢â¬ (Bigdoli, 2012). Acxiom was founded in 1969, and itsÃ¢â¬â¢ headquarters is located in Little Rock, Arkansas (About Acxiom, 2013). Ã¢â¬Å"Its customers include nine of the country's top ten credit-card issuers, as well as nearly all the major retail banks, insurers, and automakersÃ¢â¬ (Behar, 2012).Unfortunately, Acxiom has been faced with some breaches of security that have led the company make some important security changes/upgrades. In 2003, Daniel Bass, a 24 year old computer-systems administrator was found to have stolen the data of millions of individuals from AcxiomÃ¢â¬â¢s databases. He spent two years collecting this information and stored it on compact discs (Behar, 2004). He broke into their system by simply cracking passwords (Behar, 2004). Bass was not the only hacker to crack Acxiom however.While authorities were investigating Bass, they ultimately discovered an additional hacker group from Boca Raton, Florida, who had cracked the passwords for the same server that Bass had gotten into as well. While they accessed information for millions of people; it did not appear that either hacking incident resulted in the defrauding of any of the individuals whose data was stolen (Behar, 2012). Acxiom definitely needed to do something to beef up their security measures and protect their customersÃ¢â¬â¢ data.They first hired a chief security officer, which had not been a position until these incidents. The chief security officer instituted mandatory encryptions, as well as working to prevent cybercrimes. Acxiom additionally began to conduct security audits (both conducted from inside and outside firms) to test f or weaknesses in security. As far as privacy is concerned, Acxiom is considered to have one of the most stringent privacy policies there are. You can read it here: http://www. acxiom. com/about-acxiom/privacy/.They had a privacy officer long before they had a security officer. In terms of privacy, we are left questioning whether the government should have access to the information that is collected. I believe that the government should have only limited access. Acxiom was able to help the government with the investigation of the terrorist 9/11 attacks (Behar, 2004). The government should only be granted access to information relevant to important cases, not just have free reign to interpret all of the data any way they see fit.Other organizations might also feel they need access to this private data for security reasons. While I do not see how this could ever happen, the possible organizations that might feel they need access to such information might be school districts, private se curity firms, real estate professionals (especially high end), colleges and universities. While safety is an important issue at all of these places (and most others), having access to this sort of information does not guarantee safety, but in fact places unfair targets on many harmless individuals.References About Acxiom. (2013). Retrieved from Acxiom: http://www. acxiom. com/overview/ Behar, R. (2004, February 23). Never Heard Of Acxiom? Chances Are It's Heard Of You. How a little-known Little Rock companyÃ¢â¬âthe world's largest processor of consumer dataÃ¢â¬âfound itself at the center of a very big national security debate. Retrieved from CNN Money: http://money. cnn. com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2004/02/23/362182/index. htm Bidgoli, H. (2012). MIS2. Boston: Cengage Learning.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Self-Reflection The purpose of this paper is to explain how I will plan to implement effective choices in improving a change in personal behavior and the improvement tours my fitness attitude. Wellness has a broader definition, than health, which itÃ¢â¬â¢s definition is the absence of disease and wellness is defined as the optimal health and vitality to living a healthy and fulfilling life. Also, is a process in which we become aware and we make choices to a better lifestyle. Maintaining an excellent level of wellness is crucial to live longer, live a higher quality life and control risk factors. To achieve this, is important to consider some of the dimensions of wellness. Through the course of the semester I have learned some self-Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I will set up a routine in which I can exercise five days a week using a different routine each day. Right now, I only exercise 2-3 times a week, my first step Is not to make excuses when it comes to physical activity. I k now that having kids, working, and going to school is hard and is time consuming, but we can always make that extra time need it to be active. Also, I believe that intellectual wellness dimension fits into this category because having a positive motivation in learning new skills will help us accomplish our goals. For example, trying new exercises which sometimes for us girls think that only man can do, like weights, I personally think that doing upper weight will increase my muscle and therefore I do not work that area. My last goal is to learn how to cope with stress using the spiritual wellness. As I learn in chapter 10 we cannot avoid stress, but surely can learn to cope with it. I considered myself in a Type D which is hard for me to express myself, be afraid in the judgement of others, and have negative emotions. I believe that besides exercising regularly and eating healthy, spiritual wellness is a very important too and helpful. 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