Wednesday, July 31, 2019
BALANCING OF ROTATING MACHINES The first thing to be explored to control vibrations is to try to alter the source so that it produces less vibration. This method may not always be feasible. Some examples of the sources of vibration that cannot be altered are earthquake excitation, atmospheric turbulence, road roughness, and engine combustion instability. On the other hand, certain sources such as unbalance in rotating or reciprocating machines can be altered to reduce the vibrations.This can be achieved, usually, by using either internal balancing or an increase in the precision of machine elements. The use of close tolerances and better surface finish for machine parts (which have relative motion with respect to one another) make the machine less susceptible to vibration. Of course, there may be economic and manufacturing constraints on the degree of balancing that can be achieved or the precision with which the machine parts can be made. The presence of an eccentric or unbalanced m ass in a rotating disc causes vibration, which may be acceptable up to a certain level.If the vibration caused by an unbalanced mass is not acceptable, it can be eliminated either by removing the eccentric mass or by adding an equal mass in such a position that it cancels the effect of the unbalance. In order to use this procedure, we need to determine the amount and location of the eccentric mass experimentally. The unbalance in practical machines can be attributed to such irregularities as machining errors and variations in sizes of bolts, nuts, rivets, and welds. In this section, we shall consider two types of balancing: The static unbalance can be corrected by removing (drilling) metal at the chalk mark or by adding a weight at 180Ã ° from the chalk mark. Since the magnitude of unbalance is not known, the amount of material to be removed or added must be determined by trial and error. This procedure is called single-plane balancing, since all the mass lies practically in a sing le plane. Ã¢â¬ ¢The single-plane balancing procedure can be used for balancing in one plane that is, for rotors of the rigid disc type.If the rotor is an elongated rigid body, the unbalance can be anywhere along the length of the rotor. In this case, the rotor can be balanced by adding balancing weights in any two planes. For convenience, the two planes are usually chosen as the end planes of the rotor. However, in many practical applications, such as turbines, compressors, electric motors, and pumps, a heavy rotor is mounted on a lightweight, flexible shaft that is supported in bearings. There will be unbalance in all rotors due to manufacturing errors.These unbalances as well as other effects, such as the stiffness and damping of the shaft, gyroscopic effects, and fluid friction in bearings, will cause a shaft to bend in a complicated manner at certain rotational speeds, known as the whirling, whipping, or critical speeds. Whirling is defined as the rotation of the plane made by the line of centers of the bearings and the bent shaft. Reference link: http://classof1. com/homework-help/engineering-homework-help
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Training Needs Assessment for Chicago Transit Authority By Tammi Adams Table of Contents Executive Summary___________________________________________________ 3 Background of CTA___________________________________________________ 4 Needs Assessment Design, Implementation and Analysis_____________________5 Recommended Training Strategy and Design______________________________6 Cost/Benefit Analysis__________________________________________________ 8 Training Evaluation Plan_______________________________________________9 References___________________________________________________________10Executive Summary We here at CTA are committed to providing quality and safe service to our customers which is why we are committed in making sure that all qualified individuals are trained to the highest standard. This training needs assessment is focused on the bus operators of the CTA since they are the public face of the agency. Before any training can begin individuals have to go through series of test to see if a individual is qualified. Once a person is qualified and hired they will start a 4 week training class with qualified CTA instructors.This 4 week training class will consist of classroom work and on- the- road techniques. Once the training has ended the trainee will take a 100 question exam to see how much they have learned though out the training course. In order to the successfully pass the training course the trainee will have to pass at least 80% of the exam. If a trainee has failed to pass the exam they will be given a second chance, but if they fail again, potential employment at CTA will be terminated. After a trainee has successfully passed the training course they will be known as a professional bus operator and will start working on their own.Once the bus operator starts working an instructor will come out at random to observe them to see if all rules and procedures are being followed. CTA has decided that every 2 years all bus operators will have to ta ke a recertification class to refresh their skills and learn new ones. Background of CTA The CTA is the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s second largest public transportation system which covers the City of Chicago and 40 of its surrounding suburbs. The CTA is provided by their modes which are the bus and rail service while the bus service is the public face of the agency. On a average CTA provides over 1. 4 million rides which accounts for 80% of all taken in the six county Chicago metropolitan region. CTA operates 24 hours each day on an average weekday. It has approximately 1,800 buses which operates 140 routes. Buses provide about one million passenger trips a day and serve more than 12,000 posted bus stops. The Chicago Transit Authority's 1,190 train cars operates eight routes, its trains provide about 650,000 customer trips each day and serve 144 stations in Chicago. CTAÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is to deliver quality, affordable transit services that link, commuters, jobs, and communities.CTA has many values but the most important one is providing transit service with the highest standards of quality and safety for our customers. Another value is that they focus on getting the job done and will derive personal satisfaction from the service they provide. With this being said while providing quality service it is important that CTA has dedicated and skillfully trained employees. It is important for the employees to be aware of all procedures so they can provide service with high standards. The specific position at CTA I will be discussing is the position of Bus Operators.At CTA, bus operators are the face of the agency which is why it is important for them to ensure CTAÃ¢â¬â¢s goal of providing quality and safe service to its customers. Bus operators are the ones who operate bus transportation over a route adhering to a schedule in a safe efficient and polite manner to allow passengers to board travel and alight at scheduled stops. Needs Assessment Design, Implementation and Anal ysis At CTA safety is its number 1 priority, with this being said training definitely supports the company strategic direction.It is important that everyone who operates a bus knows how to operate it safely, know the rules of the road, what to do in case of an accident and knows all of CTA procedures. With the proper training CTA can reduce the number of accidents it has had throughout the years and offer its customers the best transit service. CTA has decided that all training will be done in-house and that all training be conducted by CTA certified Instructors. All instructors are former CTA bus operators who have been bus operators for over 10 years and have a clean driving record.The duties of a bus operator are navigating the bus through an assigned route, manages the collection of bus fares, provides customer service to its passengers, report conditions that could jeopardize the safety of the passenger or other members of the public and maintains contact with dispatch and repo rts current position and conditions affecting the operation of the route as required and assists in loading, securing, and unloading wheelchairs and passengers. Before anyone can start training with CTA there are a few qualifications they must have. They first must pass a personality test.The reason being is to determine what kind of person you are and how you would handle certain situations that may arise while you are operating your bus. Before training can begin all trainees must possess a high school diploma and have basic skills such as writing, communication and reading. Bus operators must be able to communicate with its passengers in a professional manner and along with being able to read road signs. Before trainees start training sessions they will have to possess a clean driving record and a valid class B Commercial DriverÃ¢â¬â¢s License with an unrestricted passenger endorsement.Recommended Training Strategy and Design The training will include classroom work, and on-the road training techniques to ensure that all employees will be prepared for being able to work on their own. The classroom session will consist of learning the operation of a public bus which will include familiarization with all safety features and its system. It will also include learning traffic rules, regulations and laws, learn the fare structure, and learn how to read schedules.Included will also be topics such as how to provide first aid assistance in the event of an accident; promoting transit rider-ship within the Municipality and how to maintain a working relationship that is professional with your coworkers, superiors and passengers. The on-the-road training techniques will consist of how to operate a bus in a safe, efficient and timely manner to comply with all regulatory requirements and all standards. Some of the techniques that will be learned is how to make a right and left turn, how to curb the bus and learning how to change lanes.Training will also include how to o perate and utilize standard safety equipment that is installed in transit passenger vehicles, including; safety harnesses, restraints and other equipment that is required by state and federal regulations. Once this has been established the trainee will team up with a bus line instructor to learn various routes and they will also see how it is to drive in service with passengers. During this time the bus line instructor will observe the traineeÃ¢â¬â¢s driving, collecting pay fares and also how they are dealing with passengers that aboard the bus.All training at CTA consists of 4 weeks, Mon thru Fri 8 hours a day: 2 weeks of classroom work, 1 week of on-the-road training and 1 week of driving with a bus operator to learn all of the routes. Once the trainee has completed these 4 weeks of training they will be required to take a 100 question test on everything that has been learned throughout the training course. In order to pass the training the trainee will be required to pass 80% o f the test. If a trainee does not pass at least 80% of the test they will have one- on-one training with an instructor for 1 week on topics that they are struggling with.After extensive training another test will be given and the trainee must pass this test or else they will not be hired for employment with CTA. Direct Cost| Cost/Benefit Analysis| In-house instructors (20 [emailÃ protected] $480)| $9,600 | Materials ($40 *20 trainees)| $800 | | | | | Compensation for Trainees| | Trainees salaries| $32,000 | | | Total training cost| $42,400 | | | Cost per trainee| $2,120 | Training Evaluation Plan After the trainee has passed all tests and has started working on their own, an instructor will ride with the operator and observed them to see if all rules are being followed properly.Not only will instructors ride with new operators, they will further ride with all operators at random to see if they are following all rules and procedures of the company. CTA will also hire spotters who w ill go out and observe operators to see if procedures are being handled properly and if procedures are not followed the spotter will report the operator to CTA officials. Another thing that CTA does to ensure that training is followed effectively is that once a new bus operator has started they will be evaluated every month for a year to see if there have been any violations or accidents.In addition CTA will also provide on-going education services (recertification class) so that employees may continue to refresh existing qualifications and obtain new skills. This type of training will be given to all employees every two years. A retraining class will also be given to an operator if they have been involved in an accident by which it was their fault. This type of training will consist of what might have been done to avoid the accident along with going over necessary techniques.This training can range from 1 to 5 days depending on how serious the accident was. A test will also be give n following retraining to insure the operator has a thorough understanding of what they have learned and how they can avoid being involved in another accident. CTA must stay committed in making sure that all operators are following proper procedures throughout training evaluation to ensure they are committed to their goal which is provide necessary transit service with the highest standards of quality and safety for its customers.References Chicago Transit Authority. (2011, June 17). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved , from http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index. php? title=Chicago_Transit_Authority;oldid=434808174 Chicago Transit Authority. (2011,June 15). CTA Overview. Retrieved from http://www. transitchicago. com/about/overview. aspx Mass Transit. (2011,June 9) Managers Forum. Retrieved from http://www. masstransitmag. com/article/10220533/managers-forum
Monday, July 29, 2019
Paleo-discharge of the Maumee floods - Research Paper Example The results positively indicate the extent of the damage and predicts the next step in solving the problem. Introduction The problem is finding ways of restoring the watershed to a state that would be useful to the inhabitants living in the surrounding. This study is aimed at identifying opportunities and issues in the process of establishing the viability of the study. The main subject of the study is the deposits that were formed by the glacial activities. They include the Fort Wayne Moraine, and the Wabash. The Wabash was formed as a result of the activities that followed the melt water that into the St. Joseph and St. MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s Rivers. The two streams converged at the western edge of Fort Wayne Moraine. They drained a bigger discharge that created a valley that was called the Wabash Erie Channel. On a personal observation of the site there is feasibly in the thickness of disjointed deposits that are in the southern and the northern sides of the Maumee River watershed. The hei ghts go from 50 to 100 feet above the ground. This evidence of the occurrence of glacial activity in the northern part of the Maumee River. The bedrock holding these features is controlled by the Cincinnati Arch on the southern part and the Michigan Basin the northern area. The study tries to measure the magnitude of the water discharge that has been impacted by the Maumee River. Methods A task in the lab is to figure out the flood elevation from topographic maps and imagery near Lafayette, Indiana. In order to do this, I make 5 cross sections (Battleground, Americus, upstream of Delphi, Purdue and Lafayette, and Independence) from the topographic maps, with a vertical exaggeration of 10X. The scale of my cross section is, horizontally 1cm = 800ft, and vertically 1 cm = 80ft. There are two different ways I used to estimate discharge to complete this project. The first one is using ManningÃ¢â¬â¢s equation, and the second one is using the equation in dam breakout floods. In this par t, I am going to give detailed explanations for each of the equations, and explanation of flood reconstruction. Method1: Discharge estimations, whether of modern floods or ancient floods, requires that you determine both the average velocity of the water as well as the cross sectional area. The overall equation is: Q = u * A Where Q is the estimated discharge, u is the average velocity of the flow, and A is the cross sectional area. The average velocity can be estimated using ManningÃ¢â¬â¢s equation: u = RH2/3 * S1/2 * n-1 Where the RH is the hydraulic radius, S is the water surface slope, and n is the channel roughness coefficient. The cross-sectional area (A) is the area of flowing water as measured from bank to bank. Requires both a channel cross section, which I constructed, and an estimate of water depth (d) for calculation. The hydraulic radius (RH) is a physical characteristic of a streambed. It is the cross-sectional area (A) of the channel divided by the wetted perimeter. The wetted perimeters the length of the wetted edge of a channel cross section containing flowing water (i.e. the total perimeter minus the water surface). The water surface slope is the angle of the water surface relative to the horizontal. This angle can be found by measuring the change in water surface elevation between two points along the stream. Roughness coefficien
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Critically Evaluate why the Liquidity of a Firm is Considered Crucial Especially in the Growth Stage of a Company's Development - Essay Example Current paper focuses on a particular aspect of organizational performance: liquidity, a term used in order to show the potentials of an organization to meet its liabilities. Emphasis is given on the significance of liquidity in the growth stage of the company development. At the same time, efforts are made in order to identify the terms under which the changes in the financial statement of a particular organization can influence the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s value creation process. The literature published in regard to these issues has been reviewed and evaluated; it is made clear that the role of liquidity in the growth stage of the company development can be differentiated. As of the changes on a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s financial statements, these seem as unavoidable especially under the following terms: the value creation process of each organization is based on specific organizational data; changes on the particular data could influence the validity of the assumptions made in regard to the ec onomic status of the organization and its power within its industry. 2. Liquidity and company development - Why the liquidity of a firm is considered crucial especially in the growth stage of a company's development In order to understand the role of liquidity in the growth stage of a company development, it would be necessary to refer to the activities in which a company has to be involved during the specific phase. In accordance with Schmeisser, Clausen and Popp (2011), during its growth phase, a firm has to develop its activities covering the relevant costs; at this point, the following problem appears: the development of a company in its growth phase may be delayed due to a series of factors that cannot be easily controlled, such as the lack of capability of employees, failures in the communication of the organization with its customers or suppliers and so on (Schmeisser, Clausen and Popp, 2011). During the above period, the cash required for the completion of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s projects can be increased while the profits achieved may be low, especially in the initial period of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s growth. Therefore, the liquidity of the organization during the specific period may be low. In a different case, i.e. in case that the liquidity of the organization in its growth phase is high, it can be assumed that the prospects for the organization, in terms of its performance, are quite positive. Kapil (2011) notes that the level of liquidity of each organization should be periodically checked in order to ensure the status of the organization within its market. It is explained that for modern firms, liquidity reflects their ability to achieve their targets, no matter if they refer to the short or the long term. In the context of the above role, liquidity is described as an indicator of Ã¢â¬Ëthe investments and assets of a firm that can be quickly converted to cash at any time or within one yearÃ¢â¬â¢ (Kapil 2011, p.6). In the study of Arnold (2008) reference is made to the liquidity risk, which is described as the condition in which the organization is not able to retrieve the cash necessary for covering its liabilities. Moreover, Singla (2007) notes that in the growth sta
(Tyco International LTD) - Easy Work - Case Study Example within the multi-step income statement such as extraordinary activities demonstrate lack of transparency in business reporting and this justifies prohibition of IFRS for the presentation of extraordinary activities within the income statement. Tyco is characterized by acquisitions which aim at diversifying globally which has made it to have a highly decentralized structure. The working culture of the organization is motivated by the pursuit for continual growth and development. The company has many divisions which report to the head office. The decentralization within the company has led to the need for each of its divisions reporting their own financial statements separately. The senior management is the corporate office has led to aggressive reporting of financial statements by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s divisions through the high targets that they are expected to meet. Capitalization is the conversion of income into the value that the property that raised the income is estimated to be worthy. Capitalization also refers to the estimation of the present value of income for future earnings or payments. The $200 cash collection from the dealers of TycoÃ¢â¬â¢s ADT subsidiary should be recorded as operating income. The operating income of a company must be included in its financial statement to enable accurate determination of the earnings of the company in relation to its expenses (Roxas 56). The $200 that was paid to the dealers as a growth bones would be equated to the same amount of income from the dealers if it is not capitalized and thus lead to an overall balancing of the financial statement. The fraud that Tyco was involved in led to an exaggeration of its operating income. The $1.76 billion should be recorded within its multi-step income statement as sales returns under the sales revenue of the operating section instead of categorizing this amount as gains from discontinued operations. This is because the IPO which generated the amount is a sale of one of the
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Managing of Human Resource at Starbucks - Essay Example In 1999, Schultz stepped down as CEO in favor of Smith and had given him the authority. Gareth (1998, p. 38) states: Particular attention was focused on the idea of making employees feel more useful and important by giving them meaningful jobs and giving as much autonomy, responsibility and recognition as possible as a means of getting them involved in their work. The duty of any good and successful leader or manager is to create a work environment that is effective to growth. The leaders who are ready to work in teams with an appropriate level of command and authority of making decisions are considered to be successful in motivating and raising the need amongst the employees to achieve the goals. The statement that is being provided by the company's CEO clearly showed that he has faith in himself and is confident that he would lead the company to a much higher level with a teamwork and authority because the managers or supervisors need to be authoritative in their decisions in order to lead a team. Kroom (1995, p. 355) suggests that, 'authority can be considered the managers right to act.' Leadership approach at Starbucks seemed to be of democratic style. ... Theories of Leadership at Starbuck Leadership approach at Starbucks seemed to be of democratic style. The leaders or supervisors of the company provides their subordinates with the prospect to work under their leadership and make them make the most of their potential fully by letting them play a part in the decision making process and planning phase. They believe that the most successful innovation came out from their employees and by giving them the authority to bring about their job make the employees feel esteemed and honored. McGregor proposed a theory which became a base for leadership. According to him the manager or supervisor categorize their employees in two distinct groups of human behavior, namely Theory X and Theory Y. Kroom (1995, p. 357) write that, 'the way in which manager or supervisor leads his subordinates is determined to a large degree, by his assumptions about human behavior.' Theory X is considered to have those people who are not ready to do any work, very lethargic and lazy and are controlled by their supervisors. On the other hand, in Theory Y, the human behavior of the people is positive towards the work and is very keen and enthusiastic in fulfilling the job. 'Theory Y which is a positive view, people are willing to work, will enforce self-control if they have committed themselves to objectives and will accept responsibilities.' (Kroom 1995, p. 357). The leadership style that is being used at Starbucks by the manager or supervisor is democratic management style. They gave empowerment to their employees and encouraged innovativeness. The employees mostly lie under Theory Y and have positive attitude towards their objectives. It is to believe at Starbucks that by implementing ideas by the employees gave them a sense of contribution and was
Friday, July 26, 2019
The Three Major Components of a Product Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words
The Three Major Components of a Product - Article Example The notion of Ã¢â¬Ëcost of productionÃ¢â¬â¢ deals with the overall expenses which have been made by the production house in producing the particular product (Kaufman and Woodhead, 2006, p.164; Essential Components of RTI Ã¢â¬â A Closer Look at Response to Intervention, 2010, p.2). To understand the perceived complexity of tailored as opposed to standardized products, one needs to understand how different cultural influences concur with the perceived value as well as the importance known to a product or service by the market. A product, in this context, is more than the physical element and it is regarded as a package of different rewards and/or utilities that the buyer gets. These aspects include the shape, the flavor, the color, the smell and also the texture of the product. Also, aspects of how the product works, the packaging, the labeling, and the security are closely related to these aspects. Along with these aspects the service manufacturer and the retailer, the level of confidence or status enjoyed by the particular brand, the level of reputation of manufacturers, of a country of origin, or any other representative utility expected by the possession and/or use of that product. Considering a product mainly for the secondary market, the amount of adjustme nt which is required largely depends on the cultural differences as well as the perception of the market where these products were originally developed. The greater the level of cultural differences between these two markets, the higher the level of adaptation of the product that will be necessary (Barbu, n.d., p.109). One of the most important American products which have been changed to a great extent in the context of the increasing the volume of sales in the foreign market has been showing programs on the TV channel MTV.Ã
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Terrorism Affecting The World Economy - Essay Example To trigger development, it encouraged the formation of rural enterprises, liberalized foreign trade and investment, introduced education reforms, and invested heavily in industrial production. In several peak years, the GDP hit as high as 13 % and today the per capita income has quadrupled compared to what it was 15 years and if the predictions by various analysts hold true, the Chinese economy will cross that of United States in another 20 years. (Khan 2007) According to a research conducted by IMF in an attempt to find the key sources of its growth, it was found that the increase in the number of Chinese workers has been one of the major factors of its growth. At the same time capital accumulation through the growth in the overall assets of the country, new factories, manufacturing machinery and development in its communication systems have also marked its growth. According to most theoretical and empirical analysis conducted, more than 42 percent of china's growth has to do with productivity gains since 1979-94 but after 1994 capital took over as the most significant and primary source of growth. This marks an avid departure from the more traditional views on development wherein capital investment takes the lead. In most cases, economists studying Chinese Growth have faced lots of theoretical and empirical issues most of which cr... It elaborates over the link between productive factors such as capital and labour to output. This model is mostly applied to market economies but can also be used for command economies. In addition, finding from such empirically modelled data has led to the conclusion that in recent year's capital investment in goods and technology have led to increase in productivity. (A Measurement of the Contribution Made by Foreign Investment 2005) India: India has shown remarkable economic growth for the past three years of its running. For a decade, it has been registering an economic growth of 7% plus which has led to reduction in poverty by 10 %. However 60% of India's population continues to thrive on agriculture which makes a poverty alleviation a major economic channel. The fact that droughts and floods are still common in the nation, does not sit too well with the agents of economic growth. According to a hypothetical analysis that was recently conducted, one main reason behind India's economic growth has been the structural transformation that has been adopted by the national government. India's economic growth has been oft conceived as directly related to that of its performance in the service sector in particular. Its growth rate was above 11 % in 2007 and contributes to 53 % of GDP today. Investment in industrial sector has been another key component of its growth and it contributes to 29% of its GDP where as agriculture is 17 % of its economy. Manufacturing sector has emerged rapidly and has shown remarkable progress between 2005 and 2006. It grew by 12 % during this time where as communication and storage sectors grew by 16 %. (Indian Economy overview
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
The Psychological Effects of Alcohol Consumotion - Research Paper Example Alcohol is created through a chemical process of fermentation usually involved in a process of brewing or distilling. There are three main classes of alcohol: beer, wine, and liquor. Each one is unique in their strength and how they are made. Beer is traditionally brewed from hops using yeast for fermentation. Wine is made from a variety of grapes which is fermented to increase the alcohol content. Hard liquors have the highest alcohol content and are often created through a process known as distillation. There have been many different legislative actions which have influenced the use of alcohol in United States history. The first major event was the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment which prohibited the sale of alcohol in the United States. This caused an increased crime rate and increased sales of alcohol on the black market. The only way in which a person could get alcohol legally was through the prescription from a licensed physician. This was repealed by the twenty first amendment which once again allowed alcohol to be sold legally. There has also been legislature which has determined that no one under the age of 21 may consume alcohol in the United States and states are given the right to set restrictions on types of alcohol sales and hours of operations for establishments selling alcohol (Gately, 2008). What is alcohol? Alcohol is both water and adipose soluble. The chemical composition for alcohol (ethanol) is C2H5OH. The polarity of the molecule caused by the oxygen is what allows alcohol to interact with the body. This means that alcohol can go in and affect around 90% of the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s components and systems. It specifically functions as a depressant by lowering the neuroelectrical activity in the central nervous system which in turn affects other parts of the body. Ethanol is specifically linked to dealing with the inhibition of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine, GABA, serotonin, and NMDA receptors. Alcohol also stimulates the secretion of dopamine in the dopaminergic reward pathway which is what accounts for the euphoric effect associated with drinking (Begleiter, & Kissin, 1996). This is also seen in the interaction with GABA receptors. GABA is principally used by the body to control stress response. Alcohol stimulates these receptors on GABA neurons which are why people usually report feeling calmer and more relaxed after consuming alcohol. This is also what helps with the psychological effect because this good feeling is reinforcing the alcoholic behavior. In addition to the physiological effects that are caused by the disruption of the levels of these neurotransmitters, there are also psychological effects to be considered. Once alcohol enters the body, it is metabolized in the liver where the alcohol is converted into acetylaldehyde. This organic molecule is then broken down into acetate, water, and carbon dioxide. The human body is able to process approximately one drink an hour. This is however dependent on many factors. The first key difference is in gender. Males can typically process alcohol faster than women due to water to fat ratio. This is because alcohol is soluble in both water and fat. Metabolism is also another important key factor in the process of alcohol. Too much alcohol can cause damage to many different organs. First, the liver is the most susceptible to damage. Even though the liver is the fastest regenerating organ in the body, scarring caused by overdrinking can
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Two of the Gospels, compared and contrasted - Assignment Example The gospel according to Mathew begins with the genealogy of Jesus. It traces His roots of to King David through Joseph, His father. Jesus had a miraculous conception through the Holy Spirit as Mary conceived before meeting with Joseph. A star guided visitors from the east to visit Him at Bethlehem. Later on when he was two years old, he escaped with his parents to Egypt when King Herod began killing all children who were less than two years of age. He returned from Egypt after Herod died. John the Baptist announced that Jesus would baptize people with fire and the Holy Spirit. John baptized Jesus afterwards he went to the wilderness and fasted for forty days and forty nights. The devil came to tempt Jesus three times after his fasting. However, he overcame these temptations and began his mission. (Johnson 167). The gospel according to Luke begins with the annunciation of the birth of Jesus Christ by angel Gabriel, six months into the pregnancy of Elizabeth. His conception was miracul ous, as Mary did not meet with Joseph before getting pregnant. His birth was at Bethlehem in a manger. A week later, he underwent circumcision in accordance to Jewish customs, and named Jesus. Later on, he underwent purification when presented to the temple for dedication in Jerusalem and met Simeon and Prophetess Anna. At age twelve, he went with His parents to the temple in Jerusalem for the Passover Feast and stayed behind with the Pharisees. John the Baptist baptized Jesus. Afterwards, he went to the wilderness for fasting for forty days and forty nights after which the devil came to tempt Him. He began his work in Galilee, teaching in synagogues where he encountered rejection at His own home in Nazareth (Johnson 167). Write an essay explaining the significance, background, conversion, and ministry of the Apostle Paul. Christianity in the early days got a lot of opposition from the rulers of its time, especially among Romans who were ruling Jews. It brought about numerous change s in spiritual settings of everyone who heard the gospel. This led to confusion in the Roman Empire because most teachings of Christianity condemned socially accepted practices such as corruption and bribery, which were a common feature in the Roman Empire. Jesus ascended to heaven after charging His disciples with the duty of spreading the good news to the Jews and the Gentiles, and across all nations of the world. Romans disliked this confusion and persecuted everyone found spreading the gospel, or claiming to be a Christian, i.e. a follower of Christ. Saul was one of the men who had deep hatred for Christianity. He was an army general and had immense hatred for Christians. He travelled across cities of the world persecuting and killing all the Christians he came across. One day he was on his way to massacre Christians in Damascus when the Lord appeared to him in a flashing light and thunderous voice. The Lord spoke to him and asked him why he was persecuting His people. The brigh t light form of the Lord blinded him for three days where he ate or drank nothing. The Lord gave a dream to Ananias who went to pray for Saul. Saul proceeded to Damascus where he accepted salvation and became a follower of Christ. The scales on his eyes came off and he regained his sight. Saul changed his name to Paul from this day on. He became one of the biggest followers of Christianity, travelled everywhere to preach the gospel and endured all manner of persecution for the sake of the Lord. In fact, he wrote the largest number of books in the bible, i.e. the Pauline Epistles. Based on the principles and tools for interpreting the Bible given in Unit 3 (historical context, literary context, genre, etc.) and the discussion of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s letters in the book and in Unit 9, explain how you
Monday, July 22, 2019
Police Perception In My Community Essay INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE Community Oriented Policing is a philosophy and not a specific tactic, It is a proactive, decentralized approach, designed to reduce crime, disorder, and by extension, fear of crime, by intensely involving the same officer in the same community on a long-term basis, so that residents will develop trust to cooperate with police by providing information and assistance to achieve those three crucial goals (TrojanowiczÃ and Carter,1988) The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (Crime Act) is widely recognized as a significant milestone in community policing. It was intended by President Clinton and Attorney General Reno as the Ã¢â¬Å"changing of policing.Ã¢â¬ The legislation provided the funding vehicle for an additional 100,000 police officers to boost law enforcement efforts in a climate of nationwide anxiety about crime. The Act gave the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (OCOPS) the task of supporting a major drive toward rooting community policing in solid foundations to become the prevailing orthodoxy in American law enforcement. (Nicholl, 1999) Law Enforcement Agencies throughout the country look to Office of Community Oriented Policing Services to improve their own services. According to OCOPS, Ã¢â¬Å" Community policing focuses on crime and social disorder through the delivery of police services that includes aspects of traditional law enforcement, as well as prevention, problem-solving, community engagement, and partnerships. The community policing model balances reactive responses to calls for service with proactive problem-solving centered on the causes of crime and disorder. Community policing requires police and citizens to join together as partners in the course of both identifying and effectively addressing these issues.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is important to note then the PublicÃ¢â¬â¢s Perception of the Police is an essential element for the success of Community Policing-based strategies. Throughout the country, studies have been made that correlate Police Perception and Community Policing. During the past 20 years, there has been an expanding body of research examining citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes toward the police. Most of this research has been directed at assessing the determinants of these attitudes. In contrast, less attention has been focused on the reasons why citizens hold certain attitudes (Frank et al,2005) The author then, as a member of the Chesterfield Police Department, has a special interest in Community Policing and Police Perception, most especially in his own community. This research them aims to study Police Perception particularly in the Community of Chesterfield Township, a part of The County of Macomb in the state of Michigan. Ã It is worth mentioning that TheÃ Chesterfield Police Department Ã¢â¬Ës aim is embodied in its mission statement:Ã it is committed to providing the highest quality of public service and crime prevention while maintaining the publics respect and protecting the rights and dignity of everyone. The Chesterfield Police Department is dedicated to strong community relationships while providing a safe environment to enhance the quality of life for our citizens and visitors, which is very much in line with the concept of Community Policing. This is further supported by this Police DepartmentÃ¢â¬â¢s value statement , abbreviated as POLICE, which includes developing an everlasting PARTNERSHIP between the Community, having a dedicated to the OATH of protecting and serving all people ,recognizing the importance of all Department members and Citizens, treating each other with fairness, LOYALTY and respect , maintainingÃ the highest degree of INTEGRITY, being responsible and accountable for their own actions and decisions , believing that COOPERATION and teamwork will enable them to achieve all goals of this Department and having a commitmentÃ to EXCELLENCE in the performance of theirÃ duties (http://www.chesterfieldtownshippolice.com/values.htm) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Chesterfield Police DepartmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Mission and Value statements share the same elements with the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services which aimsÃ Ã¢â¬Å"to help law enforcement agencies implement and enhance community policing, definedÃ as a policing philosophy that promotes and supports organizational strategies to address the causes and reduce the fear of crime and social disorder through problem-solving tactics and police-community partnerships.Ã¢â¬ (C.O.P.S. http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=36/ ) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Chesterfield Township is located in Macomb County, Michigan and encompasses an area of approximately 26 square miles. The population at the 2000 census was 37,004. Ã This increased to 446,962 in the year 2006. (Muller, 2006) The Township was established in 1842 and became a Charter Township in 1989 by Resolution. (Pall, 2002) Ã In Chesterfield, The number of violent crimes recorded by the FBI in 2003 was 28. The number of murders and homicides was 1. The violent crime rate was 0.7 per 1,000 people. Ã Meanwhile, in the whole Macomb county, of which Chesterfield is included, a total of Ã 22,395 were reported for the year 2000 , a majority of reports were for Larceny and Motor vehicle theft. Sixteen of the reports for that year were on murder, 309 for rape and 384 reports on robbery for that year (Federal Bureau of Investigation to the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data, University of Michigan) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is in from scope then that the author gathered data for the completion of this research Guided by feedback from other researches undertaken on Police Perception of the community such as these: Ã Ã Gathering data on crime and community policing at the local level not only supplements our national data, but also allows local officials to identify their particular crime control needs, said Bureau of Justice Statistics Director Jan Chaiken.Ã As part of the Justice Departments emphasis on police working with residents in their neighborhoods, we are giving local law enforcement agencies tools to learn more about crimes and public opinion that may not be reported to the police.Ã¢â¬ Community policing is a crime fighting strategy that encourages law enforcement to work in partnership with the community to solve crime problems. The high degree of citizen support for Americas neighborhood police officers is a testament to the dedicated men and women who work day in and day out to establish relationships with residents in their communities, said Deputy Attorney General Eric Holder.Ã These relationships help citizens and police work together to promote community safety. (Smith et al, 1999) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In light of these statements, this research was undertaken to determine the Police Perception in the Community of Chesterfield Township, whether it is positive or negative through the use of a Police Perception survey adapted from earlier studies made by other police department in certain cities, particularly Portland (Campbell De long, 2005) , Pasadena (Police Assessment Resource Center, 2006). Chicago (The Chicago Community Policing Evaluation Consortium, 2004) and Kentucky (Kentucky Crime Prevention Coalition) it also aims to provide demographic breakdown of survey respondents in relation to their Police Perception in Chesterfield Township. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Such information will enable the Chesterfield Police Department to continue living out their mission statement and embody the philosophy of Community Policing by either maintaining or improving their performance based on their communityÃ¢â¬â¢s police perception, as will be determined by the survey done for this study. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is the hope of this author that this research will also lead to the initiation of other studies concerning his community and the other areas in the County of Macomb, and even the State of Michigan to further improve the Police Departments public service performance to ensure the safety of the citizens. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The idea of examining Police Perception is not new. The communityÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the police department has been linked to the success of police programs to promote safety in the neighborhood. A study made by Gallagher. Et al in 2001, summarizes the studies made regarding Police Image and CommunityÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the Police in a Ã¢â¬Å"The Public Image of the Police: Final Report to The International Association of Chiefs of Police. Research findings point out that : Ã¢â¬Å"Polls of the adult population in the United States since the 1960s show that the majority of the public has an over-all positive view of the police. Depending on the year and the particular measure used, the percentage of respondents with a positive assessment of police has been between 51 and 81 percent. When asked to assess service to their own neighborhoods, respondents tend to produce even higher evaluations. Relatively few citizens offer a negative assessment of police. (Gallagher et al. 2001). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Research also recognizes that Police Perception has a great impact on the success of the promulgation of Community Policing. Trojanowicz Carter(Ã 1991) discuss the philosophy and role of community policing. It points out that Ã¢â¬Å"Community Policings unique contribution is a radical departure from the past and the present. While todays community policing efforts retain the best elements of the foot patrol programs of the past, they are intended to avoid both the old systems abuses and shortcomings.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In Ã¢â¬Å"Community Policing, Community Justice, and Restorative Justice: Exploring the Links for the Delivery of a Balanced Approach to Public SafetyÃ¢â¬ Nicholl in 1999 with a report funded by Grant No. 98-CK-WX-0059 awarded to the National Victim Center by the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice. It discusses the concept of Community extensively, in a policy-makerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. Ã Liou Savage make the connection between Community Policing Strategies and Public Perception of Police through their research Ã¢â¬Å"Citizen Perception of Community Policing ImpactÃ¢â¬ This study examines the impact of community policing by analyzing citizens perception of crime and police work before and after implementation of a community-oriented policing program in three neighborhoods in the city of West Palm Beach, Florida. The study reveals very positive findings about the community policing, including: perception of decreased local crime, increased perception of police performance, neighborhood improvement, and police-community relationship. Implications concerning the relationship between the community and the police, and citizen satisfaction and public services are discussed.( Liou Savage) Many other studies have been done to examine Police perception and these take into consideration different variables, being done in various settings. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Frank, Smith and Novak (2005) focused on the reasons why citizens have certain attitudes towards police officer. Their study Ã¢â¬Å"uses the survey responses of 613 residents of a Midwestern city to examine the information accessed by citizens when responding to questions regarding their general and specific attitudes toward the police. The findings suggest that citizens focus on attributes of agencies and encounters, some focus on the behavior of officers during interactions, and others base their attitudes on general perceptions of the occupation of policing.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A comprehensive look atÃ Police perception issues can be found in Brown BenedictÃ¢â¬â¢s article Ã¢â¬Å"Perceptions of the police: Past findings, methodological issues, conceptual issues and policy implicationsÃ¢â¬ which is aÃ research updates and expands upon DeckerÃ¢â¬â¢s article Ã¢â¬Å"Citizen attitudes toward the police: a review of past findings and suggestions for future policyÃ¢â¬ by summarizing the findings from more than 100 articles on perceptions of and attitudes toward the police. Initially, the value of research on attitudes toward the police is discussed. Then the research pertaining to the impact of individual level variables (e.g. race) and contextual level variables (e.g. neighborhood) on perceptions of the police is reviewed. Studies of juvenilesÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes toward the police, perceptions of police policies and practices, methodological issues and conceptual issues are also discussed. This review of the literature indicates that only four variables (age, contact with police, neighborhood, and race) have consistently been proven to affect attitudes toward the police. (Brown Benedict,2002) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In terms of application, several police departments have made their own studies on Police Perception. Ã¢â¬Å"Community Policing in Chicago an Evaluation of ChicagoÃ¢â¬â¢s Alternative Policing StrategyÃ¢â¬ Ã Prepared by The Chicago Community Policing Evaluation Consortium was done in through a grant awarded toÃ award to the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority in 2004. The Ã¢â¬Å"Portland Police Bureau 2005 Community Assessment SurveyÃ¢â¬ was conducted for: City of Portland, Bureau of Police by Campbell de long resources Inc in August 2005 Police Assessment Resource Center andÃ Vera Institute of Justice completed Ã¢â¬Å"Assessing Police-Community Relations in Pasadena, CaliforniaÃ¢â¬ in 2006 . The Kentucky Crime Prevention Coalition, meanwhile, adapted the use of a Community Policing Survey. HYPOTHESIS H0= There is no significant percentage of Chesterfield Residents who have a have a positive perception of the Chesterfield Police Department H1= There is a significant percentage of Chesterfield Residents who Have a positive perception of the Chesterfield Police Department METHODOLOGY: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Taking into consideration the limitations in man power and resources for this research, a simple random sampling method was applied to come up with the survey results. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Based on the calculation for a 95 per cent confidence level and confidence interval of five, the sample size was 275. Ã The survey was conducted by distributing survey forms in several householdsÃ around the Township of Chesterfield. Respondents were limited to Chesterfield residents above 18 years of age. Only one respondent per household was accepted. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã These survey forms, consisting of eight simple questions pertaining to the residentsÃ¢â¬â¢ perception of the police, which was based on survey forms used by other Police Departments as stated in the literature review. Only eight questions were included in the survey, because these questions focused on Police Perception. This is due to the scope and resource limitation stated earlier. A copy of this questionnaire is included in the appendix section of this paper Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This studyÃ¢â¬â¢s objective is to present data about Police Perception of the residents of the Township of Chesterfield in Macomb County in the State of Michigan. This research is done to show that the general perception of police in the sample population perceive the police positively. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The sample size was 275 respondents in the township of Chesterfield, which has a population of 446,962 in the Ã latest census in the year 2006. Based on a confidence level of 95 and a confidence interval of 5, the sample size is sufficient to estimate the response of this community regarding their perception of the Chesterfield Police Department. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Figure 1 shows the demographic breakdown of respondents by race. More than half of the respondents were Caucasians, which also reflected the actual population of Caucasians, 93 % of Chesterfield population, in the 2000 Census made by the US Census Bureau. In the sample population, 61 per cent was composed of Caucasian or white residents. Other races composesÃ 14.5 percent and 12 percent were of African-American descent. Asians comprised 5.5 per cent and 4.4 % of sample population were Hispanics/Latino. Meanwhile, 1.1 per cent wasÃ American Indians and Pacific islanders compose on 0.7 per cent. Based on these figures, it can be surmised that the Chesterfield Township was predominantly Caucasian, in terms of the population. The relationship of this data to the results concerning Police Perception will be discussed later. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The study only included residents who were 18 years old of age and above. The data shows thatÃ majority of respondents were from the 18-29 age group, with a percentage of 39 of the sample population. The age group with the least number of respondents was that of residents 50-59 years old, representing only 9 per cent of the sample population. This signifies that the Chesterfield township has fairly young residents, as seen by the larger percentage of those below middle age. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Given the limited man power and resources, the author opt to estimate Police Perception using only eight questions adapted from other studies stated earlier. The first three questions were on how the community perceived police officers, based on their encounters. The fourth question estimated the residentsÃ¢â¬â¢ opinion about the adequacy of the number of police officers in the community. The fifth, sixth and seventh questions estimated residentsÃ¢â¬â¢ perception of police based on three parameters- behavior, ability to assess needs and relationship of police officers to residents themselves. The last question asked the residents to give their over-all perception by indicating their rating for the Chesterfield Township Police Department. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Figure 3 Police Perception Responses in Chesterfield Township Community shows the relationships of responses of residents to the first three survey questions. As evident in the chart, answers for the questions on police perception based on encounters follow a similar pattern, indicating that most respondents agree that police officers are prompt, professional and fair. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Figure 4 represents the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion on the need for more police officers in the community. Based on the results gathered, majority, 36.4 per cent , slightly agree that there is a need for more police officers in the community. As a whole, though, it can be seen that more residents disagreed and strongly disagreed, 14.5 and 7.3 per cent respectively, that there was further need for more police presence as compared to respondents who agreed,9.1 per cent, and strongly agreed,1.8 per cent to the augmentation of police visibility. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã With regard to the Chesterfield communityÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of Police based on three parameters, their responses follow a similar trend, as evident in Figure 5. In terms of behavior, 49 . 5 per cent rated police Ã¢â¬Å"GoodÃ¢â¬ . 32. 7 % gave Chesterfield police officers a rating of Ã¢â¬Å"excellentÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Fair was how 14. 5 per cent rated police in the community while 3.6 per cent did not know how to answer this question. In their ability to address the need of the community, Chesterfield police officers wereÃ again rated Ã¢â¬Å"GoodÃ¢â¬ by 54 . 5 per cent ofÃ the residents. Ã An Ã¢â¬Å"ExcellentÃ¢â¬ rating was given by 29.1 per cent, while Ã¢â¬Å"FairÃ¢â¬ was what 11. 6 per cent deemed appropriate. There were 4.7 per cent of the population, though, that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to rate their police officers. When it comes to relationships between Chesterfield residents and their communityÃ¢â¬â¢s police, majority, 43.6 per cent chose to rate this, as Ã¢â¬Å"GoodÃ¢â¬ , Fair was give as rating by 27. 3 per cent of the population and 21.8 gave an Ã¢â¬Å"ExcellentÃ¢â¬ mark. There were 7.3 residents, though that were still unsure how to rate the Chesterfield communityÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with its police officers. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Based on this information, Police perception inÃ the areas specified were rated Ã¢â¬Å"GoodÃ¢â¬ by a majority of Chesterfield residents. This point out a positive view of the townshipÃ¢â¬â¢s police officers. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In relation to this positive response, the over-all rating of Chesterfield township community residents is seen in Figure 6. However, here, we see a shift of the rating from Ã¢â¬Å"GoodÃ¢â¬ to FairÃ¢â¬ . Apparently, most residents, 40.4 per cent particularly, perceive the Chesterfield Police DepartmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance as Ã¢â¬Å"FairÃ¢â¬ . Thirty two per cent believe that the townshipÃ¢â¬â¢s police deserve a Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ rating. Approximately 25 per cent believe their Police force is Ã¢â¬Å"ExcellentÃ¢â¬ HYPOTHESIS TESTING Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This limitation of this study has been presented in the previous chapters. It is important to reiterate that this is mainly, a descriptive study. However, for research purposes, the Hypothesis that Ã¢â¬Å" There is a significant percentage of Chesterfield Residents who Have a positive perception of the Chesterfield Police DepartmentÃ¢â¬ has been stated, with its corresponding null hypothesis Ã¢â¬Å" There isÃ no significant lower percentage of Chesterfield Residents who have a have a positive perception of the Chesterfield Police DepartmentÃ¢â¬ . Based on the data presented, there is evidence to believe that on all eight questions, the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s police perception leaned towards a positive image of the members of the Chesterfield Police department. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Although specific statistical tools were not applied on the data, the descriptive statistics show that the Hypothesis should be accepted and the null hypothesis are rejected. CONCLUSION and RECOMMENDATIONS Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This study aims to observe the Chesterfield communityÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of its police officers. Based on the data present, it is evident that most residents of this community hold a positive perception of their police officers. Descriptive Statistics show evidence of these, based on the percentages of positive responses. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This study, however is simplistic and there are a lot about Police perception these communities that should be evaluated so that they are translated into information that can improve the services of the Police Department. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The data gathered for this research however, can be a guide to others who will pursue such inquiry on Police Perception and who are interested in this area as a means on evaluation of Community Policing Programs, much like what other policeÃ departments have done in their respective communities. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is important to point out, however, that more resource be invested in such an endeavor to be able to come up with data that is comprehensive and more accurate. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is the hope of this author, though that this simple research has given a glimpse of the ChesterfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s communityÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of its police officers, and serve as a spring board to more advanced and relevant research. REFERENCES: Annan, Sampson O.(1995) NATIONAL SURVEY OF COMMUNITY POLICINGÃ STRATEGIES, 1992-1993 [Computer file]. ICPSR version. Washington, DC: The Police Foundation [producer], 1994. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], Brown, B. Benedict W. (2002) Perceptions of the police: Past findings, methodological issues,Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã conceptual issues and policy implications Policing: An International Journal of PoliceÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Strategies Management, 25,543 580 Campbell Delong Resources, Inc.(2005) Portland Police Bureau 2005 Community Assessment Ã Survey Conducted for: City of Portland, Bureau of Police RETRIVEDÃ 27 APRIL 2008 from http://www.portlandonline.com/shared/cfm/image.cfm?id=105839 Chesterfield, Michigan. Podunk, The Power of Place retrieved 29 April 2008 from http://www.epodunk.com/cgi-bin/genInfo.php?locIndex=21700 Ã Frank, J, Smith, B.W., Novak, K.J. (2005)Exploring the Basis of CitizensÃ¢â¬â¢ Attitudes TowardÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã the Police Police Quarterly 8, 206-228 Gallagher, Maguire, E., Mastrofski, S., Reisig, D.(2001) Ã¢â¬Å"The Public Image of the Police:Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Final Report to The International Association of Chiefs of Police By The AdministrationÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã of Justice Program George Mason UniversityÃ¢â¬ .Ã International Association of Chiefs of Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Police retrieved on Ã 28 April 2008 from Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://theiacp.org/profassist/ethics/public_image.ht Liou,K.T. Savage,E.G. Ã¢â¬Å"Citizen Perception of Community Policing ImpactÃ¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Public Administration and Management: An Interactive Journal. Retrieved onÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 28 April 2008 from http://www.pamij.com/liou1.html Mission Statement. 2007. Chesterfield Township Police Department, retrieved 27 April 2008 from http://www.chesterfieldtownshippolice.com/mission.htm Nicholl, Caroline G. (1999).Community Policing, Community Justice, andÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Restorative Justice: Exploring the Links for the Delivery of a Balanced Approach to Public Safety. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, Police Assessment Resource Center Ã Vera Institute of Justice. (2006) Ã¢â¬Å"Assessing Police-Community Relations in Pasadena, California.Ã¢â¬ retrieved on 28 April 2008 from http://www.parc.info/client_files/Pasadena/Assessing%20Police%20Community%20Relations%20in%20Pasadena%20California.pdf Scaglion , R. Condon, R.Ã (1980)Ã Determinants Of Attitudes Toward City Police.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Criminology 17, 485Ã¢â¬â494 Sims, B., Hooper,M., Peterson S.A. (2002) Ã Determinants of citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes toward police:Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Results of the Harrisburg Citizen Survey Ã¢â¬â 1999 Policing : An International Journal of Police Strategies Management, 25, 457 471 The Chicago Community Policing Evaluation Consortium ( 2004 ) Ã¢â¬Å"CAPS at Ten :Community Policing in Chicago An Evaluation of ChicagoÃ¢â¬â¢s Alternative Policing StrategyÃ¢â¬ . Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Institute for Police Research retrieved 27 April 2008 from Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/publications/policing_papers/Yr10-CAPSeval.pdf Trojanowicz R.C.Ã Carter, D.Ã The Philosophy and Role of Community Policing. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The National Center for Community Policing, Michigan State University.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã retrieved on 28 April 2008. fromhttp://www1.cj.msu.edu/~people/cp/cpphil.html
Iraq War and Osama bin Laden Essay The United States of America has failed in its endeavors with Iraq. Looking at the current situation in Iraq, there were so little, or no improvement at all ever since America waged a war on Ã¢â¬Å"terrorism,Ã¢â¬ pointing the finger to Iraq. When it was planned to train Iraqi soldiers so that they could Ã¢â¬Å"defendÃ¢â¬ themselves, leaving them to the hard work in their own backyard, one thing has been overlooked. Training a small population of IraqiÃ¢â¬â¢s to defend or fight for their welfare is not the solution, hence it could further lead to something worse. It is only adding fuel to the fire, igniting the civil war Iraq is experiencing in its backyard (Bereuter, 2004). It will only increase the horrifying truth of the Iraq war, and its negative effects on the humans Ã¢â¬â death, starvation, poverty, and hatred of its own countrymen. It also has its toll on economy, pestering both Americans and Iraqis. There are various variables to consider when you talk about this war. These are the dependent and independent variables. The first variable that is a proof of the warÃ¢â¬â¢s failure was the increasing death toll. It is a rather dependent variable on the war because it is directly affected by the war itself. The military death toll have greatly increased, wasting the precious lives of the soldiers willing to do any of the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s bidding. Non-Iraqi workers and contractors death toll has also doubled, bringing fear in the hearts of those who wish to work in there. The insurgencies and Iraqi resistance has then risen in a great number of times since the war has started. Death is the biggest price that both sides will pay in this Iraqi war. Roughly a lot of Iraqis have died defending their country Ã¢â¬â or fleeing it. U. S. -trained Iraqi police and National Guards were unable to protect the people, to provide safety for everyone, as it was promised by the United States government. On the other hand, not only were the United States losing the war in Iraq, they are also losing precious lives of the soldiers fighting for a lost cause. More than a thousand American soldiers and their families have suffered the consequences of the Iraq war. If death wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough, it also caused a tragic change in the economy of both countries. Both countries have increasing number of bodies being piled on the ground. Another dependent variable is insurgency. It is a consequence of the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ campaign on Iraq. Many people decided to take arms and fight US instead of helping peace to prosper. Insurgency has grown stronger than ever, as it can be seen on the number of deaths and losses from both ends. As the U. S. continues to stay in the Iraqi backyard, the more these Iraqi insurgents would mass up and attack people, the more the problem will continue for Iraq and the US, just like an incurable headache. The Pentagon points out that in November 2003, there were only about 5,000 Iraqi insurgents. But as of September 2004, the number of these people have blown out 400% 20,000. And considering that the number of dead Iraqi resistance fighters were around 24,000, the grim fact is that it is even larger in reality (Lieberman, 2005). An independent variable of the United States war against Iraq was the impact on economy. It is a rather independent factor that you consider because it is not connected to the so called Ã¢â¬Å"campaign against terror. Ã¢â¬ But whether people like it or not, war has affected the economic situation of the country and the whole world. Not only was this war wasting precious lives, it is also wasting hard-earned money. About 151 billion U. S. dollars went down the drain as the cost of this war continually increases. The money which came from AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s taxpayerÃ¢â¬â¢s pockets are surprisingly being wasted on bullets, guns and ammunitions, vehicles, and more, considering that these things are being wasted, and have no real benefit as of late. Ending the war: the price for OsamaÃ¢â¬â¢s head The United States, along with the United Nations and the European Union have resorted to a lot of efforts in order to solve this problem. This includes empowering a few chosen Iraqis to defend themselves and be able to start a new government. This effort has been considered futile since Iraq as a country is being plagued with internal conflicts Ã¢â¬â civil wars between various ethnic groups. So if you empower any of these groups, there is a tendency that they would just go against each other, so instead of solving the problem, you are giving them another blow in the head. Another effort which they had resorted to was hunting down the famous terrorist leader, Osama bin Laden (Kirkpatrick, 2004). As the Al QaedaÃ¢â¬â¢s leader, he is considered to be one of the most influential heads of the Iraqi resistance. They think that killing him would mean victory in the Iraq war. They see that his presence Ã¢â¬â his very existence, is considered to be an encouragement for the Iraqi people to take arms and fight the Ã¢â¬Å"invadersÃ¢â¬ in their lands. Using the terrorist attacks in the country as an example of what this man can do, the United States government has waged an all out operative to search for bin Laden. The army literally bombarded the possible hiding places for Osama bin Laden, but still returning empty handed. Rumors about his death came out, but the lack of evidence has left the people doubting. What the United States overlooked was not Osama bin Laden is not the problem, so putting him out of the scene was definitely not the solution. Osama bin Laden was only a part, just a fraction of what the US government is up against with. He may be an influential leader, but still, there are other factors that they have to consider if they really want to end this war against Iraq. Iraq is in the middle of a very turbulent civil war; different groups in the country are fighting among themselves for survival, since each of them claims that they canÃ¢â¬â¢t live with any of the other groups. It is a communal war, wherein they are slugging it out with other groups; Sunnis fighting against Shiites, Kurds against Sunnis, and Shiites against Kurds (Diamond, 2006). In these groups there are other minorities fighting on multiple front, thus making the war complex. Osama bin Laden as a terrorist icon doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily prove much of an importance, since between these IraqiÃ¢â¬â¢s lies greater conflicts. These conflicts could lead to mass slaughter, thus creating chaos in the global level.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Factors Which Are Affecting Health The social determinants of health consists of various factors that determine health and wellbeing, for instance, socio-economic factors, genders, cultures and education (McMurray, 2010). Some groups of people are healthier than others. There is a relation between income and health, as well as they are strong predictors of health. People with low economic status have poor education, unemployment, job insecurity bad working conditions and lower class jobs (Marmot, Foege, Mocumbi Satcher, 2008). It affects the access of healthy environments and appropriate medical care facilities (Dew Matheson, 2008). In New Zealand, there is a significant disparity in health between the Maori and non-Maori people of Aotearoa New Zealand. Maori people and pacific people are highly vulnerable to ill health and disabilities. Maori mortality rates are approximately double as compared with European New Zealanders rate (Dew Davis, 2005). However, many surveys found that Maori have similar or lower rates of hospitalization than other New Zealanders in spite of their higher demand of treatment. This shows that financial conditions affect not only production but also consumption of health care. (Ministry of Health, 2002). The poor health status of Maori may due to poor economic circumstances. Maori people aged between 45 years and 64 years are more likely to die than others in this same age in New Zealand (Dew Matheson, 2008). Inequality in life expectancy and the risk of death rate are significant health inequality. The gap in life expectancy between Maori and non-Maori increased to 10 years. The early death rate in Maori population is mainly related to occupational class. More Maori people are doing unskilled works than others and it can cause higher risk of early death (Dew Matheson, 2008). Nursing services should be organised according to demands of whanau rather than the needs of providers. Nurses must recognise, understand and remove financial, cultural, geographical, physical barriers for reducing inequalities in health. Economic barriers are unsafe working conditions with little jobs, unemployment, inadequate housing, crime, high disparities in income and wealth. Participation and encouraging them with proper support at all levels of the health and disability sector can improve their status. Maori participation should be ensured in planning, development and delivery of health and disability services (King Turia, 2002). Therefore, they must get appropriate and effective nursing care. Moreover, Maori should be ensured with development and workforce enhancement. Nursing services should be culturally appropriate. Maori health models should be used for caring Maori. Build and recognize values of Maori models of health and traditional healing, for example, massage, herb al remedies and spiritual care. They want services that reflect Maori cultural values. Nurses must provide workplace education, health promotion and clinical services to keep the work place and its employers safe and healthy. They need high levels of communication skills, understanding of interpersonal and government standards and legislation. Plunket nurses provide family parenting support in community (McMurry, 2010). Treaty of Waitangi protects the rights of responsibilities of Maori. Therefore, it reduces in equalities in health in New Zealand ( McMurray, 2010). The government introduces strategies to decrease inequality in health status. They are New Zealand Health Strategy as well as Health and Disability Strategy. This strategy makes sure accessible and appropriate care services for people from lower socio- economic group including Maori. It helps to identify and provide care according to their health needs. The Ministry of Health provides nutritional guidelines and policies for New Zealanders to address nutritional needs. Maori and Pacific people are the groups, who have the poorest health status in New Zealand. Improving the quality of health education programs focused at Maori can improve their status. Encourage the Maori health providers to participate in health section and organization of smoking cessation programs. Increase mental health services for Maori. People with poor health often find to get a good job. Health status determines socio-economic position. The main disability services are income support, disability allowance, acc idental compensation, antidiscrimination legislation as well as education and support services for people with disabilities, chronic illness and mental health illness living in the community (King Turia 2002).The government and the Ministry of Health provide key priority to reduce health disparity among Maori. Encourage Maori health providers to build Maori models of health. The New Zealand Disability Strategy pointed out the demand to remove the barriers like discrimination among Maori with disabilities. Improve the number of trained Maori clinicians, health professionals, managers, community and voluntary worker and researchers in order to strengthen the health and disability sector. Improving the skills of the Maori health and disability workforce can reduce inequality in health. Publicly funded hospitals and primary health care organisations have started to identify and meet the needs of Maori. Now many hospitals have Maori and whanau units, as a result they get better care and culturally safe treatment. District health boards are working with primary health care and it plays a significant role in reducing health inequalities (King, 2002). Smoking is significantly prevalent among Maori in New Zealand. Many Maori women die early due to smoking related to illness at greater than others. There is no decrease in the smoking percentage among Maori for the last five years. There are many psychological factors that are associated with smoking. Depression and anxiety are closely related with smoking. Depression can cause smoking, whereas, addiction of smoking can lead to depression. Parental influence is another causative factor for smoking. If parents are smokers, children will be more vulnerable to smoking. Researchers found that, these children have four fold risks than other children. Suicidal tendencies, low self esteem, poor body image, low socio-economic status, and lack of academic performance at school as well as poor quality of life are also influencing factors for smoking. The psycho-social conditions of adolescents and their behaviour decisions can cause depression and risk taking behaviours (McMurry, 2010). In New Zealand, 42% smokers are Maori. These indigenous people with low levels of education, employment and home ownership are more vulnerable to smoking. People who have prolonged mental stress are also having a high risk of smoking. Many youngsters start to smoke as an experiment. Finally they gets addicted to these substances. Smoking can cause severe health problems like lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, pneumonia and asthma. Passive smokers are also more vulnerable to lung cancer. When women smoke during pregnancy, it can lead to intra uterine death and deliver a baby with low birth weight (MOH, 2008). In conclusion, Maori have poorest health status in New Zealand. The socio- economic determinants of health are responsible for health equalities. Home ownership and property ownership are low in Maori than others. Therefore, salary is the main source of income for them. Labour market is a significant income for them. The low income negatively influences their health. The government introduced New Zealand Health Strategy to reduce inequality. This essay discussed about current nursing practice taking initiation to reduce this disparity. Moreover, Risk taking behaviour such as smoking causes many problems and psychological factors related with smoking.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Food and energy security have always been essential needs in various ways. This is due to their limited resources and their increasing demand by a growing human population [1, 2, 3]. At the same time demands of ethanol has been increasing since it is considered to be an alternative transportation energy source other than food consumption [4, 5]. Considerable attention has been given to ethanol production from various available sugar substrates such as molasses, sugar cane juice ; starchy materials like rice, millet, corn, sorghum, wheat, potato, cassava [3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10]; as first generation ethanol and cellulosic materials as second generation ethanol . Pearl millet, broken rice and sorghum are the major starchy materials used by Indian distilleries not only for the production of potable alcohol  but also for the fuel purpose (http://www.icrisat.org/text/research/grep/homepage/sgmm/chapter12.pdf). Moreover, Indian distilleries use these raw materials based on their avai lability and cost since these are seasonal grains [12, 13]. The increasing price of crude oil and other fossil fuels have increased the interest in alternative fuel sources around the world [14, 15]. Fuel alcohol production from starch materials needs constant process improvement for meeting the economic payback by lowering the high price energy consumption and improvement in fermentation efficiency in order to be considered as a viable alternative to fossil fuel. At present, production costs for ethanol is INR 20 to 23 per liter from molasses based ethanol plant (1.0 INR = 0.0225683 USD), which is slightly higher than the Brazil using molasses (INR 14 to 16 per liter) . The Indian distilleries seek technological alternatives that would lower cost and provide higher margins in order to compete with gasoline and other fossil fuels. For the molasses based industry with 100KL per day capacity will require 450KWH power, 1620 to 1800 KL water per day for molasses dilution; and cooling water requirement will be 1080 KL per day. For a plant of s uch capacity, 2.0 to 2.3 MT of steam for 1.0 KL of ethanol production is required. In India, due to limited availability of molasses, molasses alone is not sufficient to meet the growing ethanol needs of the country, especially for use as a biofuel. Furthermore, the government of India is aggressively promoting the concept of blending petrol (gasoline) with ethanol to reduce dependence on petrol, and about 500 million liters of ethanol would be required every year, even if 10% ethanol is blended with gasoline (http://www.
Friday, July 19, 2019
I realized I wanted to be a nurse after I had my 2nd ACL surgery, my senior year of high school. I had to stay in the hospital 3 days in order to recover, and I was very lucky to have such a wonderful and caring nurse. She made me feel as if I was her only patient. I will never forget how well I was taken care of and how comfortable she made me feel. I was young and scared, but she was reassuring, because she made me feel as if I had my own mother taking care of me. She was the reason I wanted to become a nurse, because I wanted to make others feel the way she made me feel. My personal definition of nursing is encompassed within that one nurse. A nurse should be loving, compassionate, dependable, competent, empathic, responsible, joyful and comforting (just to name a few). A nurse not only cares for the physical aspect of the patient but the mind and spirit as well. I believe a nurse should promote physical and emotional well-being. Nursing is more than just administering medications and performing different procedures; it is being with people, talking and visiting with them. I believe it is very beneficial to the patient to be treated as a human being rather than just Ã¢â¬Å"another patientÃ¢â¬ . It allows the patient to feel that the nurse truly cares about their well-being, and I believe that makes a difference in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s recovery. When people have to be in the hospital or nursing home, they tend to feel very vulnerable and may sometimes feel ashamed or embarrassed. Some may not have any family or friends to visit them during their stay; this is the time for the nurse to be reassuring and make them feel comfortable. I believe that making a patient feel as comfortable as possible is one of the most important aspects of nursing care. I think it makes a tremendous difference when nurses act joyful and happy around the patient. A patient notices when a nurse is having a bad day or is unhappy, and most patients do not want someone taking care of them that does not bring joy into the room. It is reassuring to the patient to know that the nurse enjoys caring for them. I believe nurses also need to show competency and confidence. It makes the patient feel at ease and relaxed to know that the nurse knows what to do.
The European epic, Beowulf, was written sometime in the eighth century in England. This time period provides us with an idea for the mixture of Christian and pagan elements because of an English society that was in the process of converting from Paganism to Christianity. Examples of Pagan and Christian traditions are presented all throughout literature. Many of the influences deal with what it going on in the world, when the piece is written. When Beowulf was written, St. Augustine had just come over to try and convert the Anglo-Saxon people to Christianity; although the conversion succeeded it was a shallow conversion, and there were still people following the Pagan ways. The fact that Christianity and Paganism are so closely combined in the epic explains the reasons for BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s Christian and pagan influences. Blending in among Beowulf's triumphs against the three key creatures, we also see Christian virtues being instilled upon the listeners. The good qualities of loyalty, humility, sacrifice for the good of others, and sympathy for those less fortunate are seen woven into the text as well as the negative consequences from greed and pride. In a thorough analysis of Beowulf, the Christian and pagan elements, represented in the characters and their journeys through various countries, creates an epic adventure filled with superhuman qualities and Christian ideals that often parallel themselves to biblical characters and events. The pagan elements of the epic are evident in a couple of the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ superhuman qualities during the first two parts of the poem. Beowulf is seen as a superhero and takes it upon himself to use his strength to defeat Grendel and save the Danes from the turmoil that has haunted them for the past... ...and his mother, despite being non-human. The author of Beowulf was extremely effective in combining pagan and Christian ideas in the poem. The ability and technique of combining two different elements into his characters makes the epic interesting to read. In mixing Christian and pagan ideas, the eighth century author was able to dramatically enhance the characters with Christian values and pagan ideals. Although the pagan elements greatly influenced the story, the addition of Christian influences and parallels to the Bible make this European epic famous for the adventures, conflicts, and heroism that take place in a time of religious transition. Today, one can still see the Pagan influences in common life. Each time Beowulf succeeded he related it to either Paganism or Christianity. Whether it is one God, or many Gods, the people all had their common belief system.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
A Master of Science in Communication Studies has finally become the heir apparent to an idea IÃ¢â¬â¢ve had for many years. Getting a graduate degree was always something I thought worthwhile, but the field of study was not so obvious. I did not want to put forth the time, effort and money without a clear idea of why to choose a particular subject, and then how to put it to good use. My first career as a weekly newspaper reporter was wonderful.Fresh out of college, but with a speech communication major (because that sounded like fun and could get me out of school in four years) I learned the newspaper business from a gentle man in a small town. Because writing is my first love, I was able to easily put information into a readable format. The rest of the responsibilities Ã¢â¬â interviewing, researching, proofreading, editing, layout, paste-up, photography, developing film and printing pictures, I picked up on the job. I was young and single, then young and married, and life was go od. It got better with children, so I put the newspaper business aside.As a few friends earned their MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s Degrees, I was envious but not compelled. English and writing were options, but didnÃ¢â¬â¢t appear sensible unless I taught high school or contacted New York for literary work (no small feat in those pre-technology days). I was not interested in either. Life with kids was busy and they were the priority for my time. Two decades later I resumed where I had left off. I was ready to work for pay again and fell into the perfect job as a weekly newspaper reporter. It has been a growing experience as I brushed up on and fine-tuned my skills.I dove into controversial issues as well as the mundane, and for the last four years have recorded the news of a very active community. From this has grown the idea that a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s is the next logical step. I love to learn, as I have from every story written for the newspaper. I am interested in studying the media from Ã¢â¬Ëth e big pictureÃ¢â¬â¢ and associating with fellow mass communication enthusiasts. There are particular aspects of the degree I will pursue because it may be the only way to learn computerized techniques useful in the field.Most of my kids are no longer home to teach me that. For my final years of employment I would like to work with a company or non-profit organization, or teach at a junior college. I plan to stay with my perfect job until my last child is out of high school. Then I may be ready for a job with set hours. IÃ¢â¬â¢m quite sure that one year at a respectable salary will reimburse the cost of the masterÃ¢â¬â¢s tuition, compared to a reporterÃ¢â¬â¢s wage. At any rate, I am always up for an adventure, and have been excited since deciding to further my education. Pat Fridgen
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
Introduction touristry is clearly understood as an noble cause of umpteen changes involving various(a) prospects, consisting of the terminuss economy, regime and culture (Cohen, 2001 Crick, 1994). With these radical changes, locals soften various posture towards touristry development and tourists themselves, some(prenominal) positive(p)ly and ostracisely. Tourists behavioral, as one scenery pull up stakesing to the influential of locals attitude towards touristry, were bought upon by their demand to motivity as s easy up as their origin sphere and culture.MacCannell (1989) suggests that touristry is a social phenomenon that can be suck ined as a stold epoch where human race interactions transpire. As for this case deal, preeminent concenter will be on what trip tourists to impress, their behavior and interaction towards the locals, as wholesome as how locals repartee to these behaviors of the tourists and their l brightening towards them. This news rep ort was limited in one particularized tourism attraction in Bangkok. touristry assiduity is a major economical factor in Thailand.With new obtain malls and hotels built in Bangkok over recent years, international visitors grew over 14 million vacationing in Thailand, rank 18th some visited country in the world (tourism Authority of Thailand, 2010). Brief interviews and card will be focus onto the locals and tourists depend their behavior and interaction in Bangkok. matter study in Bangkok A divergent sense of space induce upon arrival at the airport, with h octonaryer from Decaturened attention on the objectives of the study trip, eyes were wide fix and attempting to spot on materials relevant for the research.During the trip, virtually of the travelling was done via walking and communion barrier was an obstacle to be tackled during interaction with the locals. In attempt to accomplish the study trip theme, deuce-ace interviews were conducted with former(a) tourist s and eight conducted with the locals, those of known common languages. Interesting responses were effrontery from the locals with dissimilar billet roles. Culture fog arise while observing their socio ethnical environment, specifically on the public response towards the young boy with twain build up amputated under the blazing sun beggary for money and how locals could dine under foul unhygienic conditions.Observation and experimental test proven locals attitude towards tourists can easily be manipulated with tipping and money. Many tourists with similarity nationality were spotted in the passage of Phetchaburi obtain malls and streets. In aspect of tourism glaze, it was dishearten to watch other tourists with the same nationality to behavior in an unethical manner. Events as a great deal(prenominal) were several wastage of solid food by the tourists collect to the cheap price or fondness to try proscribed Thai Cuisines rather than filling up and absurd bargaining by tourists in shopping malls. Literature reviewResearches and theories of others were examine to encompass tourism want of traveling. Personality and motivation are interrelated, where personality could be divided up into psychocentric, as non-adventuresome, and allocentric groups, as adventuresome (Plog, 1974). Dann (1977) and Crompton (1979) twain emphasize the importance of Push and bow out factors shaping tourist motivations. Iso-Ahola (1982) suggests tourism motivation consist of extrinsic voice, need to run a management the e preciseday environment, and intrinsic section, desire to don psychological rewards through travel in a unalike environment.Kozaks (2002) study examines the differences in tourist motivation surrounded by nationalities, as well as the name and addresss. His study observe four dimensions of travel motivations includes heathenish, pleasure or fantasy based, relaxation based and carnal motives. Ambro (2005) suggests that when tourists interact in a real destination for a gigantic distance of time, a kind of limit settlement will be developed and whitethorn even become part of their identity operator which develop their avidity to visit the come out again With aspect to tourism behavior, Ritter (1987) suggests that different tourist behavior is influenced by different nationality.However, Dann (1993) criticized the use of nationality as a bushel discriminating variable for illustrating the dissimilarity rear in the tourists behavior. Additional variable much(prenominal) as age and gender differences plays a part on different motives and behaviors. quondam(a) tourists hedge to travel based on relaxation and cultural exploproportionn, whereas younger tourists tend to seek for physical activities and engage in sports when visiting a destination (Cristina. t al, 2008). Conversely Andreu et al (2005) identified that age of a tourist take tos no real influence on travel motivations. As for the gender differences r egards to traveling, Andreu et al (2005) suggest that fe manlike tourist prefer a stronger beat based and relaxation motives while male tourist preferred more(prenominal) pleasure and activity. Following reviews will be the organic studies on the locals intelligence toward tourism.Mass tourism generates melodramatic changes in both physical and cultural environment, impacting on the values and traditional way of animation in the local community. These changes fierceness local to be actively obscure in the tourism industry of the destination (Getz 1994). Ap et al (1998) claimed that a well-establish consanguinity surrounded by the locals and tourists was prerequisite for a tourist destination to achieve long term development, still the attitudes of the local hold gameyly insurrectionist meanings towards the growth of the destination (Relph, 1976).Milman et al (1988) studied the positive attitudes towards tourists, with employment opportunities, income from taxes and increase property of life as a positive impact of tourism. Mansfeld (1992) focused the perceptions of the local and examined the negative impacts of tourism. He suggested that locals with high incomes from tourism hold more positive attitudes towards tourism. Furthermore, Duvall (2002) pinpointed the negative impacts of tourism, which were the high taxes and prices in the destination, no vacation for the locals and long working hours to earn money.Additionally, Jafari (2001) discovered sise platforms of tourism, twain platforms namely the Advocacy and warning(a) platforms emphasized the positive and negative impacts of tourism, which was support by the previous studies. Liu et al (1987) study locals perceptions of the negative impacts of tourism as a function hooklike on the ratio among the identification number of tourists and locals. He claims that with higher ratio of tourists per locals will eventually lead to stronger criticism of tourism and a ensuant increase in opp osition to tourism development.Contradicting to his analysis, holy person et al (2007) evaluated that the higher parsimoniousness of tourism in a destination, the more favorable people are to tourism development and less worried some the negative impact. Results and Analysis With limitations and insufficiency of time, three interviews were conducted with other tourist within the street of Phetchaburi, mainly Singaporean and Australian develop from 21 to 33. The general question stick on to them was What made you choose to travel to this place? The results from these candidates hold different opinions according to their nationality. From the cardinal interviews conducted, both with the same nationality as Singaporean, a couple aging 24 and 25, and a group of three youngsters aging 22 to 25 respectively, similar results shown that their motives to travel was to escape from everyday routine life, to relax and most importantly, shopping. The first interview conducted with the cou ple likewise stated that it was their fourth time traveling to Bangkok because they love the place.These groups were assort as psychocentric (Plog, 1974), and were motivated as Push factors in relevance from Dann (1977) and Crompton (1979) studies. Motivated from the extrinsic component (Iso-Ahola, 1982), they seek to escape from everyday life and decided to travel to Bangkok as an option. As for the first interview candidates, the results present Ambro (2005) study whereas they had treated Bangkok as their split second home. On the contrary, results interpreted from the Australian couple hold different perceptive compared to the first two results.The Australian couple aging 31 and 33, both carrying bulky haversack, mentioned that they were on an adventure to aspect Bangkok Grand Palace and Temples. Phetchaburi solely served a pit-stop for them and had no interests in shopping, their desire to see and obtain new companionship from different countries culture and history. In a greeable with the motivation concepts, this Australian couple was classified as allocentrics (Plog, 1974), and were motivated as draw in factors in relevance from Dann (1977) and Crompton (1979) studies.Contrasting from the first and second candidates, they were motivated from the intrinsic component (Iso-Ahola, 1982), seeking for new knowledge and experience from traveling where they were unable to achieve back in their country. In respect to the interviews conducted with other tourists, the two different nationalities, Singaporean and Australian, supported Kozak (2002) and Ritter (1987) studies as different nationality reflected different motives and behavior in tourism.Due to the small group have in this study case, it was prejudiced to confirm the none between Cristina et al (2008) and Andreu et al (2005), and observations during the trip were partially agreeable with Dann (1993), age and gender plays a role in different motives and behaviors beside nationality. Such observ ations were spotted in Platinum Mall, where most shoppers were young tourists, mostly females, bargaining on items in shops vendor. From the results of the eight interviews conducted by the locals, half-dozen show positively while two explained why tourism affected negatively towards the community.Corresponding to (Relph, 1976), these result signifies that not all locals hold the same perception and attitude towards tourism. Questions such as What do you think tourism is Bangkok, Why were affix to the candidates and results were recorded as follows. These six locals who denotative positively towards tourism stated tourism allowed them to make a living and increased their quality of life (Jafari, 2001 Milman et al, 1988). Out of these six locals, one which was the owners of traditional Thai work centre indicated that locals with higher incomes from tourism hold more positive attitudes towards tourism (Mansfeld, 1992).Two locals, mainly the therapist and the shop vendor expresse d negatively. According to the therapist, she stated that their pay was very little with long working hours during prime quantity seasons, very tiring and limited line of business option as most job availability in the destination caters to the tourists industry (Duvall, 2002). As for the shop vendor, she mentioned tourists bargaining of goods and items created a negative impact towards the businesses in the shopping mall, and would rather to locals as their customer because they do not bargain as much (Jafari, 2001).From the interview with the Restaurant Waiter, the results reflected relevance findings with Angel et al (2007), explained that its a everyday norm to see tourists waste their food t wherefore would not mind them doing so. In equality with 3 of the interviews, conducted by the Shop seller, cut Practitioner and Tuk Tuk Rider, interesting results dispassionate which show the inconsistency of locals perception towards tourism (Relph, 1976). two Manicure Practitione r and Tuk Tuk Rider preferred tourist customer as they could earn more from them.Notwithstanding in the Shop Vendors view as she preferred local customers. No such findings corresponds to Liu et al. (1987) study which locals perceptions of the negative impacts of tourism as a function dependent on the ratio between the number of tourists and locals Studying both results from other tourists and the locals, as well with observation throughout the trip, various connections were discovered between the tourist and the locals in this case study.Starting off, evidences had pointed out different nationality plays a crucial role onto individuals motive in traveling, leading to various behaviors. Locals perceptions towards tourism quit with the tourists behavior, which in-turn not solo generates nationality stereotyping, but too acceptation towards their behavior. One distinct antecedent of such adoption was tourism money.With this word meaning developed with the locals, enhanced servi ce pleasure was provided towards tourists rather than towards the locals themselves, which resulted high satisfaction direct from tourist and eventuate high disbursal of them. There forth some locals essay to take advantage whereas they tried to heave up prices of services and goods, holding the feeling that most tourists would not be evocative of expenditure cost. Frustration occurred for every failed attempt, such examples could be observed from the Shop Vendor and the Taxi Driver.Possibility of such failure grow back to the tourists nationality. This relationship not only associates the interactions between tourists and the locals, however evolved through the acceptation of tourists behaviors and the level of locals heading to earn tourism money. Model 1 Overview of the relationship between the Tourists and Locals Model 2 Acceptance and assist level interrelation with Expectancy on earning from tourists Model 1 shows the overview of the relationships between tourists a nd locals demonstrate in this case study as mentioned previously.Model 2 displays a simplified graph, due to the lack of quantitative data collected indicate the higher level of acceptance and service level, the higher expectancy and intention to earn tourism money. Conclusion The a priori concepts extracted from literature reviews constitute discussion pointers on tourism motivation and behavior, as well as local perception and attitude towards tourism. In conclusion of this study case, the results highlighted the addiction of tourisms motivation and behavior on nationality.Thus, the results excessively evidence inconsistency of locals perception towards tourism. military rating of the analysis suggested a relationship between the tourist and the locals from the case study. The relationship indicates the acceptance of tourists behavior as an influential component with the level of quality services provided, hence leading to the intention and expectancy on tourism money. The fin dings of this study display real meanings and explanation on the inconsistency of locals perception towards tourism as well as their behavior towards ourism. Due to the location and sample quantity limitations from the study case, questions such as does gender contribute to different tourism motivation and behavior and diversification of the relationship suggested from this case study between the tourists and locals in different destination were yet to be answered. (2213 words) References Andreu, L. , Kozac, M. , Avci, N. , Cifter, N. (2005). Market segmentation by motivations to travel British tourists visiting Turkey. journal of function and tourism Marketing, 19(1), 1-14. Ambroz, M. (2005).Sociology of touristry The basis for the investigation of travelling cultures. Portoroz Turistica. Angel, B. B. , Jaume, R. N. (2007). Attitudes towards tourism and tourism congestion. JEL Classification, L83, 194-206. Ap, J. & Crompton, J. L. (1998). growth and Testing a tourism impingeme nt Scale. Journal of Travel Research, 37, 120-130. Cohen, N. , eds. (2001). Ethnic Tourism in Southeast Asia. Bangkok, Thailand White white lily Press. Crick, M. (1994). Resplendent Sites, Discordant Voices. Sri Lankans and International Tourism. Switzerland Harwood pedantic Publishers. Cristina, J. , Dwayne, D. 2008). Does nationality, gender and age affect travel motivation? A case of visitors to the Caribbean Island of Barbarbos. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 25(34), 398-408. Crompton, J. L. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacation. story of Tourism Research, 6 (1), 408-424. Dann, G. (1977). Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism. story of Tourism Research, 4(4), 184-194. Dann, G. (1993). Limitation in the use of nationality and country of residence variables. In D. Pearce & R. Butler (Eds. ), Tourism research Critiques and challenges (pp. 88-112). London Routledge. Duvall, T. (2002).Tourists and locals the people of Mazatlan, Mexico have many reasons for welcoming v isitors. Retrieved from http//www. academia. edu/711646/Analogous_Inequalities_Sources_of_Conversational_Hierarchy_in_Mazatlan_Mexico Getz, D. , 1994, Residents Attitudes toward Tourism A Longitudinal Study in Spey Valley, Scotland, Tourism Management, 15(4), 247-258. Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1982). Toward a social psychological scheme of tourism motivation A rejoinder. Annals of Tourism Research, 9(2), 256-262. Jafari, J. (2001). In Hosts and Guests Re-visited. Smith, V. L. and Brent, M. (Eds. ) Cognizant confabulation Corporation. New York.