Thursday, October 31, 2019
Political Theory - Essay Example These leaders assume their respective positions in government for a specified period of time after which they return to their normal work never to serve the people again. During their tenure in the government, leaders in a republic should serve the interests of the people who elected them at the expense of their personal interests. In any state, republicanism emphasizes on several significant concepts that include dedication to serving the people, advantages of universal political participation, the negative effects of corruption, strict adherence to the rule of law, and the necessity to separate powers. From these concepts, the most significant value that stands apart in republicanism is political liberty. In this case, political liberty transcends the lack of government interference in private affairs to incorporate self-reliance and self-discipline as key determinants of societal wellbeing. Political liberty keeps off the government and its leadership from the private lives of its citizens. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s interference with the private lives of its citizens only happens when individual activities threaten the wellbeing of the entire republic. As such, the role of the government in a republic is to protect the entire republic (Duff, 2011). ... Particularly, the essay explores the extent to which Jon LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s social contract theory is compatible with the republican ideologies of Niccolo Machiavelli. Understanding Social Contract Social contract is a convention between humans that aims to discard the state of nature. Under this state of nature, individuals coexist peacefully without the interference by the government and its written rules and regulations. Principles of justice based on individual ability to reason efficiently guide the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s way of life. These principles include the right to liberty and the right to live. They apply to all individuals regardless of race or ethnicity. Through reasoning, most individuals seek to follow these principles; nonetheless, the lack of written regulations results to challenges especially in the manner at which individuals solve the arising interpersonal conflicts (Maloy, 2009). In times of such conflicts, the state of nature becomes a social contract as individuals see k assistance from the state. To solve these conflicts, the state sets up rules and enforces them prompting the people to pay the state for its role in conflict resolution. In this process, the government sets up legislatures, law enforcement units, and non-partisan judicial systems to protect the right of every individual. This theory explains the processes of forming states and governments. Particularly, this theory focuses on the voluntary provision of information to the government by the people. This is because the government serves the people and it requires accurate information from the people in the process of serving them. Jon LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s Social Contract Theory and its Compatibility with the Republican Ideologies of Niccolo Machiavelli In this
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Philosophy of Music Education in the Indian Context Essay These goals must be the first and foremost reason why we teach music. To instill an even greater understanding and love of the domain thus enabling our students develop a genuine interest and continue a life long journey thatÃ¢â¬â¢s undertaken in varying degrees and through diverse roles. Phenix (1986) stress on the fact that knowledge of methods makes it possible for a person to continue learning and undertake inquiries on his own (p. 11). Estelle Jorgenson in her book Ã¢â¬Å"Transforming Music EducationÃ¢â¬ eloquently describes the need for music education to be transformed for the very reason that children be able to continue developing their knowledge beyond the classroom. Effective music education is built of a foundation that encompasses discussions, goals, materials and strategies, based on a teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge and experience of music and child development, educational guidelines and Ã¢â¬Å"overarching, and developing philosophy of music educationÃ¢â¬ (Fiske, 2012). Before I elucidate my philosophy about music, I recognize the need to clarify my stand as a music educator who is passionate and determined to elevate the status of music education within classrooms around India. My Musical Experiences Music has always been a part of me for as long as I can remember. My earliest memories of music, especially the performance aspect, goes back to when I was three years old and sang a solo for a Christmas Concert that was organized by the radio station that my father worked at. I have memories of him kneeling on one knee and playing the guitar for me while I sang after which I was delighted to receive a big present from Santa. Ever since, I have enjoyed performing, and have so felt so comfortable on stage. All along I grew up listening to Christian gospel music and many contemporary arrangements of hymns. Supplementary to that my father offered me a rich experience of Indian hindustani devotional music. I learned songs by ear and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize what I was missing at this point, imagining what I learned in music to be the only way to absorb and internalize it. Performing was something that I enjoyed doing and it came naturally to me, partly because of my early initiation into leading worship at church. My true test of endurance came about when I was introduced to Western Classical Music at the age of 14, through the study of two years of piano. My teacher, like many others around, displayed an extremely formalistic approach and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do much to expand my understanding of music beyond what was on the page and how I was supposed to read it. In response to this method I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t enjoy learning from the pages of notated music books, as much as I did learning by ear, and I continued to develop as a musician who played by ear and improvised at will. Studying opera during undergrad was a trying phase for me because of my inability to Ã¢â¬Å"connect the dotsÃ¢â¬ as easily as I should have been able to. My aural skills remained excellent and I sometimes relied on that to carry me through certain phases. Hard work and determination became my motto, and I spent hours to understand and perfect music that was assigned to me, as I wanted to do my very best. Although I had composed songs earlier, without notating them, the study of music theory opened up a whole new world for me. I could now add variety and richness to my music through the concepts I was learning. Music became a new language for me; I was captivated by the way it lent itself to diverse experiences through different musical roles (something that I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t aware of or didnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay attention to earlier). As a Music Teacher Although I initially joined a conservatory to study vocal performance, I found myself deeply drawn towards music education, and during my second semester decided to learn more about devising meaningful and persuasive trategies to improve the standard of music education in India. This thought emerged from an understanding that I had felt almost cheated for having lost out on so many years of studying music formally, yet effectively. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a choice because structured music instruction simply wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t available at all the schools that I studied in, or the quality of instruction didnÃ¢â¬â¢t serve the purpose of educating or informing students like me. What gave the impression of a music class/lesson at school was in reality an enthusiastic way of keeping students occupied for forty minutes in simple singing, with a concert for parents every once a year. We learned songs by rote to perform them, year after year. During those years though, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize the limitations that this system came with and continued to enjoy the fact that I was in choir and able to sing. This vacuum remains largely visible and unattended to in schools today, although some music educators in the recent past have taken huge steps towards improving the quality and effectiveness of their instruction in classrooms around India. Their efforts however remain predominantly an enthusiastic endeavor. What is urgently required is certainly something much more than sincere teaching. It calls for a transformation of the present system, giving room for every child to receive superior music education that fits into the whole. The need of every student being met in a transformed educational framework that constantly reshapes itself to accommodate new ideas and strategies. After all, as Regelski (2003) rightly points out that music (music education) is for everyone and not just for an elite few. The turning point in my decision to finally teach music myself came about when I enrolled my four-year-old daughter, Tiara, for after-school piano lessons. I hoped to give her a head start, with the understanding that she neednÃ¢â¬â¢t have to face the same challenges in learning music, like I had to. However, after a few classes, I realized to my complete dissatisfaction that there was no structure, no thought and imagination, and no clarity in what was being thought to her. Her fingering on the piano was all over the place for the two songs that her teacher worked on Ã¢â¬Å"Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star. Ã¢â¬ And Ã¢â¬Å"Baa Baa Black SheepÃ¢â¬ Her teacher (I later learned wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t introduced to classical notation), taught her these songs by writing letters in a book and instructing her to commit it to heart. Lesson after lesson they would follow the same outline with no emphasis on any other musical aspects whatsoever. I decided I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to take this lying down! I had to do all within my capacity to change the face of music education, as the vast majority of people understand it. I began studying about music education as well, to inform and equip myself for the task at hand. Around this period, my voice teacher encouraged me to coach students in voice, and I began shying away from it believing I was under qualified and needed many years of study to begin teaching. However, with a newfound passion and vigor, I accepted to coaching some of his voice students and also began to teach small groups of students on the history of music (because I loved learning about it). Meanwhile, I started training both my young daughters at home constantly developing new ideas and strategies to introduce musical concepts to them. A friend noticed my teaching style and asked if I would teach her daughter too, and thus began my professional journey as a music educator. Four years since then, I find myself accountable for the music instruction I offer to over 250 children across various age groups, who are part of my school. The need is so great within schools, and only a few educators are willing to take the extra effort of educating themselves and being channels of superior music instruction-catalysts of sorts. I am blessed to have a team of ten teachers who share in my vision and work alongside me in imparting music to the children who are part of our music school, Ã¢â¬Å"HarmonyÃ¢â¬ . My long-term vision is to enhance the music programs in India for the betterment of as many children as possible. Individuals donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re missing until theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve been given a taste of it, a glimpse of the bigger picture (much like my case). Through our school performances I aim on providing a window for the change to take place. A transformation that not only affects my students, but others around them as well through their personal interactions with each other and the community as a whole. My Personal Philosophy Ã¢â¬Å"A field or discipline without philosophical guidance, without critically examined ideals and commitment to their revision in light of the diverse and changing needs of those it seeks to serve, is more akin to an occupation han a professionÃ¢â¬ (Bowman Frega, 2012, p. 23). For my vision to bear fruit and show evidence of becoming something concrete, I realize the need to develop my philosophy of music to an extent that equips me with the requisite tools to be able to initiate the change that I seek after. In the words of Jorgenson (2008), Ã¢â¬Å"I want to excavate beneath the superficial and demonstrable skills to think about the ideas and principles of music teaching, the things that drive and shapeÃ ¢â¬ . According to Kivy (2002), Ã¢â¬Å"A practice or discipline or body of knowledge, then, seems to become Ã¢â¬ËeligibleÃ¢â¬â¢ (If that is the right word) for philosophy, properly soÃ¢â¬âcalled, when it becomes for us a way of life: when it cuts so deeply into our natures as human beings that we are impelled to explore and reveal its innermost workingsÃ¢â¬ (p. 7). It is necessary for me to Ã¢â¬Å"clarify the major dimensions of musical experienceÃ¢â¬ so I can Ã¢â¬Å"effectively offer them to, and nurture them within, Ã¢â¬Å" my students (Reimer, 2003, p. 9), this despite the passion and conviction with which I teach and advocate the need for arts in schools. I have begun to develop a synergistic mindset in my philosophy of music education after my reading and researching the literature, coupled with practical experiences over the last few years. Reimer (2003) points out Ã¢â¬Å" A synergistic mind-set is one open to cooperation as an alternative to contention, to searching for points of agreement or confluence as an alternative to fixating on discord, to recognizing nuances in which seemingly opposed views are capable of some level of contentionÃ¢â¬ (p. 30). I agree with ReimerÃ¢â¬â¢s democratic view that musical meaning is meaning that Ã¢â¬Å"individuals choose to give to and take from music, based on their life experiences and their musical orientations. Ã¢â¬ He further adds that there is to be no Ã¢â¬Å"one right wayÃ¢â¬ , and calls for an adaptation of a synergistic blend in music teaching. Music must involve decision making through discernment and connections within a particular role (Reimer, 2003, p. 213). Eisner (1987) illuminates the need for a curriculum that Ã¢â¬Å"exploits the various forms of representation and that utilizes all of the senses to help students learn what a period of history feels likeÃ¢â¬ (p. 7). Similarly, offering students a basis for understanding music in all contexts involves a thorough exploration of musical meaning within its definitive parameters, along with contemplation or reflection. Introducing students to the music and other art forms of various cultures is a wonderful way to broaden their understanding of the meaning of music. A student does not need to lose his own musical identity in order to study other music. On the contrary, in learning about other music, a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s life is enriched. Reimer states, Ã¢â¬Å"In the spirit of adding to the self rather than substituting other selves for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self, the study of the music of foreign cultures enriches the souls of all who are engaged in itÃ¢â¬ (p. 191). Music and Meaning As advocates of music, music educators are often expected to express the meaning of music through words, yet words are incapable of truly describing the beauty and emotion felt through experience. Ã¢â¬Å"The concern is not to arrive at a definition and to close the book, but to arrive at an experienceÃ¢â¬ (Ciardi, 1975, p. ). Ciardi states that there Ã¢â¬Å"still lingers belief that a dictionary definition is a satisfactory description of an idea or of an experienceÃ¢â¬ (p. 1). Words may attempt to describe music, yet true meaning must be derived from the actual music experience Reimer (2003) discusses the difference between meanings drawn from words or language and the meanings found through music. He writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Language is created and shared through the processes of conceptualization and communication. Music is created and shared through the process of artistic/aesthetic perceptual structuring, yielding meanings language cannot representÃ¢â¬ (p. 133). Ã¢â¬Å"The real power of music lies in the fact that it can be Ã¢â¬Å"trueÃ¢â¬ to the life of feeling in a way that language cannotÃ¢â¬ (Langer, 1942, p. 197). Phenix (1986) highlights the need to look for aesthetic meaning in music concluding that there has to be a delicate balance between descriptive proposition that serves the purpose of laying out a historical background and allowing for freedom to gain perceptual features. Though music may evoke emotions in my students as they compose or serve as an outlet for their feelings when they perform, the ultimate significance of music lies in its ability to symbolize/portray deeply felt emotions. In the pages of his article, How Does a Poem Mean, John Ciardi (1975) shares with the reader his view that language is not capable of completely conveying the meaning that is discovered through experience. Living through the poetry is more powerful than attempting to interpret it. I believe that language does, however, serve a purpose of enhancing and is required when teaching for musical meaning. Words such as diction, metaphor, rhythm, and counter rhythm describe elements that lead to the understanding of form. Once a student can identify changes in the form through performance, Ã¢â¬Å"he will have identified the poem in actionÃ¢â¬ (p. 95). He will no longer ask what the poem means but will see Ã¢â¬Å"how it meansÃ¢â¬ (p. 95). Ciardi suggests questions such as, Ã¢â¬Å"Why does it build itself into a form out of images, ideas, rhythms? How do these elements become the meaning? Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"How are they inseparable from the meaning? Ã¢â¬ (p. 100). These questions are helpful in leading a student to the ultimate meaningful experience. Likewise, music students may use their knowledge of musical elements, such as rhythm and dynamics, to see Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬ a piece of music means. Reimer (2003) says language has the essential function of disclosing and explaining the music. Music elements are inseparable from the performance of the music as they help to explain the musical experience. On their own, however, words and definitions remain dull and lifeless. I believe students should be immersed in the experience, while in a chorus, performing their instruments and listening to those around them. Meaning can be discovered through active participation in music and through the emotion and beauty the music portrays, for Ã¢â¬Å"Music means whatever a person experiences when involved with musicÃ¢â¬ (Reimer, 2003, p. 133). CiardiÃ¢â¬â¢s (1975) statement: Ã¢â¬Å"It is the experience, not the final examination, that countsÃ¢â¬ (p. 3) is particularly striking. The Indian society places high emphasis on examinations in music as with other subjects, very often overlooking the need for students to value their experience through the process of learning. I sometimes feel pressured by the community to meet high concert performance expectations and good examination results. Although I recognize that performance and the International music exams is a wonderful opportunity in which students can share their music with the community, or understand their level of competency, the true reflection of meaning in the music should be experienced in day-to-day music making within my classroom. I do my best not to focus on the examination repertoire alone but to include other music as well giving them a chance to draw out meanings and experience the music. Ciardi (1975) describes a poem as a Ã¢â¬Å"dynamic and living thingÃ¢â¬ (p. 10). He continues stating, Ã¢â¬Å"One experiences it as one experiences life. One is never done with it: every time he looks he sees something new, and it changes even as he watchesÃ¢â¬ (p. 10). Similarly, music is capable of revealing something new each time it is experienced. The meanings my students derive from an initial listening of a piece of music may be vastly different than the meanings understood months or years later. The meaning of music constantly changes with personal life experiences and new perspectives. Reimer claims, Ã¢â¬Å"Music education exists to nurture peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s potential to gain deeper, broader, more significant musical meaningsÃ¢â¬ (p. 133). I believe my students should derive their own meanings from the musical experience and without my influence. By explaining meanings to them, I face the fear of casting into oblivion the celebration of their own unique experience with the music, much the same way a language teacher might, in more ways than one, take away from the experience of a students Ã¢â¬Å"feelingfulÃ¢â¬ experience of poetry as she explains the meaning in the verses of the poem. Instead of teaching Ã¢â¬Å"whatÃ¢â¬ music means, I will instruct students on Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬ music means, enabling them to derive meaning from experiences that occur beyond the classroom, and within their own roles. Feeling through Music Ã¢â¬Å"Music does for feeling what language does for thoughtÃ¢â¬ (Bowman, 1998, p. 200). As a musician, I understand the power of music to evoke feelings. Listening to or performing a great work of music in a concert hall may bring tears or chills to the musician in a way that only music is capable. Similarly, studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ emotional lives may be heightened by experiences in the classroom. According to Reimer (2003), the Ã¢â¬Å"emotional dimension of music-its power to make us feel, and to Ã¢â¬Å"knowÃ¢â¬ through feeling-is probably its most important defining characteristicÃ¢â¬ (p. 72). In Western history, emotion has often been regarded less valuable than intellect (Reimer, 2003). Some people do not consider the arts to be as important as other core subjects such as math and reading in education due to the belief that arts are based on emotions and not reasoning or intellect. Recently, however, scientific scholars have begun to recognize that human intelligence, or cognition, is exhibited in a variety of forms, directly related to functions of the body, and tied to feeling. Dimensions of the mind, once thought to be separate and unrelated, are now known to work together, contributing to the things we know and experience. Anthony Damasio, a research neurologist, believes Ã¢â¬Å"feeling is likely to be the key factor in human consciousness itself and an essential ingredient in human cognitionÃ¢â¬ (Reimer, 2003, p. 76). The capacity to feel Ã¢â¬Å"pervades and directs all we undergo as living, aware creaturesÃ¢â¬ (p. 8). Ã¢â¬Å"Direct experiences of feeling are embodied in music and made available to the bodied experience of those engaged with itÃ¢â¬ (p. 80). The use of descriptive and symbolic language in the classroom, in the teaching of a varied repertoire of expressive music, aids in drawing out these responses of feeling from students. Including music that is heavy and loud or delicate and light will bring out an array of feelings. I believe students should be given an opportunity to articulate these feelings through journaling and in-class discussion.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Creatine Supplementation Do The Benefits Outweigh The Risks Biology Essay Creatine is a nitrogen based organic compound that is naturally synthesised in the body by the kidney, liver and pancreas. Over the past 2 decades creatine, usually in the form of creatine monohydrate, has become one of the most popular ergogenic aids used by amateur and professional athletes alike. A 2001 study involving over 600 high school students completing who completed surveys regarding the use of creatine. Over 75% of students had knowledge of creatine and its uses, 16% of whom admitted to using creatine as an ergogenic aid to improve athletic performance (Tracy et al,2001). Creatine combines with a phosphate to form phosphocreatine which is a vital way in which cells are able to store energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This is via the reversible creatine kinase reaction, so called as it is catalysed by the enzyme creatine kinase (Sweeney, 1994). Creatine monohydrate supplements are most beneficial in short duration, high intensity exercises lasting less than 30 seconds. The phosphocreatine is broken down to its constituent elements and ATP is resynthesised allowing for improved muscular performance. Taking creatine as a sports supplement is beneficial because it increases the total amount of phosphocreatine stored in resting muscle cells allowing for greater ATP resynthesis in intense activities. As well as being a commonly used sports supplement creatine is a widely researched compound due to its potential benefits in various areas of medicine. Studies have suggested that creatine may provide neuroprotective benefits, often via a similar mechanism, by delaying the onset of motor symptoms and improving survival rates in conditions such as Huntingtons disease and Parkinsons disease (Wyss and Schulze, 2002). Creatine has also proven its benefits in other neuromuscular diseases where muscular dystrophy is common by improving strength of muscular contractions in key muscles used in everyday exercises such as walking and lifting (Kreider, 1 998) . Some research has led scientists to believe that creatine plays a role in atherosclerotic protection against cardiovascular based conditions (Wyss and Schulze, 2002). This might be caused by oral creatine supplementation decreasing levels of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood plasma. Homocysteine is a commonly known risk factor for atherosclerotic disease so this may be the reason creatine can offer atherosclerotic protection. There are risks associated with using creatine as a supplement which could be as minor as trouble with acne or muscular cramping to renal dysfunction or even failure. This is a controversial area with opinions often split on whether creatine does cause renal disorders as there are many studies done concluding opposing outcomes. Further research needs to be done into this area to fully assess the risk factor for using creatine as many of the studies have been relatively short term in their nature. What is creatine? Creatine is a nitrogen based organic compound that is most commonly associated with sports supplementation. It is believed to have been first identified by a French chemist named Michel Eugene Chevreul in 1835 (Hultman et al,1996). Chevreul was able to identify the presence of creatine in a meat extract. The compound is not generally regarded a protein but is made up of 3 amino acids and consists of 32% nitrogen (Poortmans and Francaux, 1999). The chemical structure of creatine can be seen in Figure 1. Figure 1 Chemical Structure of Creatine The figure shows the chemical structure of creatine. The molecular formula of creatine is C4H9N3O2. The amino acids found in creatine are arginine, glycine and methinione. Over the past twenty years creatine has become one of the most popular ergogenic aids taken in the world of sport . An ergogenic aid is defined as any means of enhancing energy utilisation, including energy production, control and efficiency (Silver,2001). It is now known that increasing the amount of dietary creatine available leads to an increase in total muscle creatine [TCr]. As well as this, there is also evidence that both total intramuscular creatine increases levels rise as well as levels of phosphocreatine [PCr] (Martini,2006). During intense exercise phosphocreatine is broken down to creatine and inorganic phosphate (combines with ADP to form ATP) which is the fastest source for the re-synthesis of ATP molecules during the first 10 seconds of high intensity exercise (Mougois,2006). As intense exercise continues and phosphocreatine stores become depleted, ATP is not resynthesised at the same rate and performance levels drop. This is where evidence suggests that creatine can help to increase performance by delaying the inevitable depletion of phosphocreatine stores. Creatine, as a sports supplement, has only been shown to be beneficial during such short duration exercises. These range from sprinting to power lifting so an array of athletes take advantage of the compound including sprinters, rugby players and weight lifters. Creatine is synthesised naturally in the body but only at a rate of 1 to 2 grams per day (McArdle, 2009). This takes place primarily in the liver, pancreas and kidneys. It is therefore im portant to eat foods rich in creatine as part of a healthy, balanced diet. Such foods include poultry and fish which contain around 5g of creatine per kg of food weight (McArdle, 2006). Approximately half of the creatine used by the body is replaced through the diet with the other half replaced via endogenous synthesis. Approximately 95% of stored creatine is found in skeletal muscle (Spillane et al,2009). As only meat foods contain creatine it is often difficult for vegetarians to obtain ample exogenous creatine via the diet. As a sports supplement, creatine is usually taken in the form of creatine monohydrate (CrH2O). Creatine monohydrate is taken in either capsule or powder form and, nowadays, is readily available online and in high street shops (Kreiber, 1998). When did creatine become popular? Creatine first came into the public eye after the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona. Linford Christie, who won the Gold medal in the 100m event, admitted to taking creatine monohydrate supplements during his training program. The International Olympic Committee does not consider creatine an illegal substance so athletes are free to take it. 30% of high school athletes admitted to using it with the figure for both professional and college athletes is higher still. In terms of nutritional supplementation net annual sales of creatine are nearly 500 million dollars in the USA alone (Metzl et al, 2001) making it the most popular ergogenic aid used legally. In 2004, a new form of creatine supplementation was introduced to the market called creatine ethyl ester. This is now a very commonly used form of the supplement. It is said to be beneficial due to increased absorption rates compared with standard creatine monohydrate. However, studies have also shown that there is no advantage to be gained from taking creatine ethyl ester (Figure 2) compared with regular creatine monohydrate supplements (Spillane et al,2009). The study focused on claims that using the revolutionary creatine ethyl ester increases the bio-availability of creatine allowing for greater gains in performace. Subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind fashion to either a creatine ethyl ester group, a creatine monohydrate group or a maltodextrose placebo group. During the investigation both the creatine monohydrate subjects and the creatine ethyl ester subjects observed improvements in both muscle strength and muscle power but there was little difference recorded between the two creatine based groups. The authors were able to conclude that despite claims, creatine ethyl ester provides no benefits, as a sports supplement, compared with creatine monohydrate (Spillane et al,2009) Figure 2 Creatine ethyl ester As can clearly be seen from the diagram the chemical structure of creatine ethyl ester is slightly different to that of creatine. The molecular formula is C6H13N3O2. How to take creatine? Creatine monohydrate is widely available and is usually found in powder or capsule form. Unlike many protein supplements creatine is not usually flavoured and is just mixed with water. When starting to take creatine as a supplement the athlete must first undergo the loading phase which usually lasts no more than a week. This is necessary to elevate intramuscular levels of creatine phosphate and involves taking 5 grams of creatine 4 times a day. Taking 20g a day elevates both free creatine and creatine phosphate levels by between 10 and 30% (McArdle,2009). The short term mass gains experienced by users of creatine are likely to be primarily caused by water retention. Users of creatine should limit their caffeine intake because it is now well known that caffeine counteracts the ergogenic benefits that the substance provides. In 1996 a Belgian study concluded caffeine has the ability to completely eliminate the ergogenic benefit of creatine supplementation (Vandenberghe et al, 1996). Th erefore it is vital that athletes who use creatine limit their caffeine intake to a minimum if not exclude caffeine containing drinks from their diet all together to prevent the impact of the supplement being inhibited. It has also been proven that caffeine intake prolongs muscle relaxation time, therefore opposing the action of the creatine which is able to shorten muscular relaxation time (Hespel,2002). Does creatine possess other benefits? As well as the much documented use of creatine as a sports supplement, the compound is the basis of intense, scientific research with regards to its possible benefits in other areas. Among these is the potential use of creatine to protect against both neurological and atherosclerotic disease. It is thought that creatine administration may be beneficial in treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by increasing muscle mass (Fuld et al, 2005). Creatine supplementation displayed neuroprotective effects in various animal models of both Huntingtons and Parkinsons disease (Wyss and Schulze, 2002) as well as in McArdles disease (Vorgerd et al,2000). Also in this paper, the authors looked into atherosclerotic protection which may be provided by creatine by lowering the concentration, in the blood, of the amino acid homocysteine. Homocysteine has previously been identified as an atherosclerotic risk factor. A 2002 study focused primarily on the effects creatine had on transgenic animal m odels of Huntingtons disease. Again, this study found creatine to be beneficial in that survival rates increased and delayed the development of motor symptoms associated with the condition (Andreassen et al, 2001). Much research has focused on the possibility of creatine supplementation increasing strength and power in neuromuscular disease patients who often suffer with muscular dystrophy (Tarnospolsky and Martin,1999) . Handgrip and body weight, as well as other measures, were taken and showed significant improvement after the course of supplementation. As well as the potential neuroprotective benefits of creatine, research has also taken place to find other advantages of the creatine compound. Sullivan et al, for example found that creatine can help provide protection against traumatic brain injury (Sullivan et al, 2001). However, this evidence was only gathered using transgenic mice models so further and more extensive studies need to be conducted. Animal models were used during the study and post chronic administration of creatine cortical damage to the mice was reduced by as much as 50%. The potential use of creatine as a form of treatment in Huntingdons disease is revolutionary and vitally important. This is because there is no current effective treatment for the condition so all forms of potential therapy must be explored. A study in 2000 looked into whether, by increasing phosphocreatine levels, creatine could be administered to Hutingdons disease sufferers. Although there has been little research into the matter, there is a possibility that creatine supplementation can influence bone biology (Candow and Chilibeck,2010). Resistance training alone has previously shown to be beneficial, especially to the elderly to help reduce bone loss which in turn decreases the likelihood of bone fractures. Long term creatine supplementation, possibly coupled with resistance training may be a future method in helping to maintain bone structure and reduce the risk of falls and injuries (Candow and Chilbeck,2010). As well as this the aging process is also responsible for sarcopenia which is essentially a reduction in muscle mass resulting in decreased muscle function and muscle weakness (Evans,1995) (Tarnopolsky and Safdar,2008). Creatine supplementation, combined with resistance training may be able to reduce muscle wastage and increase muscular hypertrophy (Dalbo et al,2009). This is believed to be due to the activation of satellite cells. These were first discovered in 1961 during microscopic studies of muscle fibre tissue (Mauro,1961). Since then much information has been obtained as to their function. Satellite cells are believed to function as progenitor cells to the myofibre nuclei which are involved in muscle cell growth (Campion,1984). Muscle fibres are not able to divide, so new muscle fibres are formed through the division of satellite cells. This contributes to the ability of skeletal muscle tissue to repair itself following an injury (Martini,2006). Are there any risks to taking creatine in the long term? Despite the various benefits I have described creatine does have its critics. Numerous studies have focused on the worrying link between its use and renal dysfunction or even complete renal failure. In particular a study by Pritchard and Kalra concluded that creatine had been the underlying factor which led to renal dysfunction in their subject (Pritchard and Kalra,1998) . This was thought to be due largely to the fact that creatine is degraded to creatinine prior to excretion in the urine. This led to further studies on the issue but there is still no definitive answer as to whether the use of creatine as a supplement contributes to renal dysfunction. Another study by Thorsteinsdottir et al in 2006 focused on the alarming case of a healthy 24 year old who was diagnosed with acute renal failure while taking several dietary supplements, including creatine monohydrate. For example, a paper by Poortmans and Francaux (1998) looked into the findings from the Pritchard paper by supplementi ng subjects for as long as 5 years. They found no link whatsoever between the use of creatine and impaired renal function. The same paper also found there to be no impact on blood pressure either. Despite this it is generally accepted that those suffering with renal disorders should refrain from the use of the supplement. While use of creatine as a supplement for a period up to 8 weeks has shown no detrimental health effects, further work must be done to investigate any long term health implications which may arise. Studies focusing on creatine supplementation in endurance athletes have sometimes found that taking the substance could actually inhibit performance. This is thought to be due to the weight gain sometimes attributed to the use of creatine (Balsom et al,1994). There have also been numerous links between creatine supplementation and increases in acne, especially among adolescent athletes which could be another factor in a performer choosing to avoid supplementation. Creati ne use has been linked with outbreaks of acne especially among adolescents. A study by Kaymak in 2008 concluded that between 15-20% of subjects treated had high blood plasma levels of creatine phosphokinase. A clinical report by Landau et al in 2001 also produced similar results with up to 51% of patients being treated with isotretinoin having elevated blood creatine kinase levels. As creatine use became more prominent links began to be forged that the person taking the supplement could be more prone to muscular cramping and spasms, particularly during exercise (Poortmans,2000). However, there is also evidence to the contrary. In 2001 a study was carried out using 26 athletes from various sports (Schilling et al, 2001) . Although the authors focused on the long term clinical markers of creatine use they were able to conclude that there was no increased risk of muscular cramping through use of the supplement. These findings were backed up in 2003 when a paper was published following a 3 year study using elite college athletes (Greenwood et al, 2003). The data was collected between 1998 and 2000 and the authors looked into whether creatine use had any affect over the rate of muscular cramping and injury. Their results showed no significant difference between the placebo group and the creatine taking group allowing them to conclude that creatine had no effect over cramping rate. Similiar conclusions were made in a study by Dalbo et al(2008). Although the majority of evidence gathered suggests that using creatine monohydrate as a nutritional supplement does lead to performance improvements in high intensity, short duration exercise there is some evidence to the contrary. A 1995 study concluded that there is no benefit to using creatine during short term, high intensity bicycle riding (Cooke et al,1995). There was no difference between the power output of the control group compared with the group who had taken the supplement. These findings are interesting due to the large amount of research which concluded that creatine supplementation was advantageous during this manner of exercise. Creatine and endurance events Most of the evidence gathered has suggested that creatine is only beneficial in short, power based activities and has no known advantages with regards to endurance events. This is partly thought to be due to the weight gain attributed to creatine supplementation due to water retention. However in 2004 a novel experiment was conducted which investigated the potential use of creatine to reduce inflammatory and muscle soreness markers during a 30km bicycle race (Santos et al,2004) . The markers the scientists measured were creatine kinase (CK), lacate dehydrogenase (LDH), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha. The subjects used were all experienced road runners whose personal best times for a marathon distance ranged from 2.5 to 3 hours. The subjects undertook the standard creatine loading phase, as well as a small dose of maltodextrin, in the fortnight leading up to the race. Maltodextrin is a commonly used food additive that is used in both the creatine subjects and the placebo subjects so there is no difference in the flavour of the compounds taken. Santos et al found that, in their subject s, the markers of muscle soreness were significantly higher in the control group (who took maltodextrine but not creatine) than in those who had taken creatine. This implies that although creatine has not yet to prove any performance benefits during endurance events it may be beneficial in reducing soreness and improving recovery post exercise by reducing cell damage (Santos, R et al, 2004). In this project I will look into the array of benefits creatine can provide as well as investigating its negative aspects. I then hope to conclude in what situations the benefits outweigh the potential risks as well as where the risk factor may be too high to warrant using the substance. Creatine as a sports supplement As I have already mentioned, it is now known that creatine monohydrate supplements work by increasing the total amount of phosphocreatine available to resting muscle cells. During intense exercise this is broken down to its constituent elements (Phosphate and creatine) and the energy released is used to drive the re-synthesis of ATP, the universal energy currency (Kreider, RB, 1998). As only a very small amount (approximately 2g per day) is synthesised naturally by the liver, pancreas and kidneys extra phosphocreatine in the muscle cells serves to reduce fatigue during high intensity, short duration activities like sprinting. A study by Kerksick et al in 2007 investigated the impact of various different protein sources and creatine on the human body following a 12 weeks high intensity resistance program. 49 subjects were used who regularly attended the gym to carry out weight lifting exercises. Some subjects were administered with a colostrum protein blend, which is formed from the mild delivered by cows in the days following giving birth. Other subjects were given colostrums combined with creatine administration. A protein control group was put in place and Kerksick et al predicted that the inclusion of creatine with the colostrums blend would bring about greater improvements in both body composition and power than those taking colostrum alone. The resistance training program led to mass gains for all subjects but the greatest lean mass gains were achieved by those taking a blend of creatine and colostrums protein. However, there was no significant improvement in subjects one repetition maximum on the be nch press between the protein control group, the c colostrum group or the colostrums/creatine group. Due to the increased availability of phosphocreatine it would have been predicted that the colostrum/creatine group would have achieved the greatest improvements in this exercise over the 12 week study. In some cases as little as one week of supplementation can be enough to produce performance improvements (Volek et al,1997). Volek used 14 active, male subjects in a double blind fashion where 7 where unknowingly the placebo group and 7 were administered with oral creatine monohydrate supplement. Bench press and squat jumps were the chosen exercises to measure the effect of creatine on performance. As well as increases in the weight subjects could bench press, and increases in power output for the squat jumps there was also a noticeable increase in lean body mass among the subjects of up to 2.7 kg, possibly due to the water retention attributed to creatine use. Despite all the evidence which has been gathered implying that creatine does play a role in helping enhance ATP resynthesis during short term, high intensity exercises there is some evidence to the contrary. In particular a paper by Cooke et al in 1995 concluded that their subjects had experienced no benefit whatsoever to using the supplement for their high intensity, intermittent bicycle sprints. The authors focused primarily on the power output the subjects were able to exert as well as fatigue levels experienced. 12 healthy yet untrained male subjects were used for the study, 6 of which were the placebo group with the other 6 making up the supplemented group. The supplemented subjects used the loading phase technique to increase the levels of phosphocreatine in resting muscle cells faster, but the phase only lasted for 5 days. This may have been too short a period of time to load them as most manufacturers suggest a 2 week loading phase. However, as I have mentioned Volek et al, 1 997 found performance improvements could occur in as little as a week. Cooke et al found there to be no significant difference between the power output between the two groups, prior to or after the supplementation period. This led the authors to conclude that use of creatine as an ergogenic aid has no positive effect over a persons ability to exert more power in muscular contraction, which opposes much of the evidence gathered in other studies. Creatine and its neuroprotective effects In some studies creatine has demonstrated neuroprotective effects. In some animal models creatine has provided neurological protection against the onset of symptoms in both Parkinsons and Huntingtons disease (Wyss and Schulze,2002). There are three main steps involved in creatine metabolism with one being creatine transporter. The others are, firstly, AGAT which is L-arginine :glycine amidinotransferase. This forms precursors to the creatine molecule itself. Also, GAMT is involved in the biosynthesis of creatine molecules. Deficiency of either AGAT or GAMT leads to a deficiency in both creatine and phosphocreatine in the brain, which can lead to severe mental retardation (Schutz and Stockler, 2007). In the studies carried out by Wyss and Schulze there was a noticeable improvement in clinical symptoms of both AGAT and GAMT deficiencies but there was no change with the creatine transporter disorders. Dechent et al, 1999 also found that oral creatine monohydrate supplementation also inc reased creatine levels in the brain. Furthermore, in transgenic mouse models of Huntingtons disease, creatine administration has shown to improve survival rates, as well as prevent the inevitable onset of symptoms. (Andreassen et al,2001). This was concluded to be via a similar method to how creatine operates as an ergogenic aid, but by increasing phosphocreatine levels in the brain, rather than in muscle cells. A minimal dietary administration, of just 2% creatine was enough to provide positive results in the study and provide neurological protection. Huntingtons disease is often associated with loss in weight and the creatine presence also helped to minimise weight loss in the animal subjects. In 2002 a revolutionary study was carried out by Jacobs et al into the possibility of using oral creatine monohydrate to assist the recovery of patients with spinal cord injuries at the cervical vertebrae level. Sixteen subjects were used for the study who had suffered injuries between the C5 and C7 vertebrae. Results showed that VO2 max, VCO2 max, and time to fatigue were all greater in the supplemented group compared with the placebo group and Jacobs concluded that there is definite benefit in using creatine to assist with training in the rehabilitation of such severe spinal injuries. This again demonstrates the potential uses that creatine supplementation has in providing neurological protection and rehabilitation. Creatine supplementation may also be beneficial in patients suffering with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Rosenfeld, 2008). This is a neurodegenerative progressive disorder which is characterised by muscular dystrophy and can be fatal. An advantage of this trial was the large sample size, which was over 100 subjects. While creatine did not significantly improve motor or respiratory capacity there was a definitive trend toward increased survival rates among the creatine supplemented subject group. Rosenfeld called for further research to be considered into the increases survival rates that were linked to the use of creatine. Creatine and renal failure It has been predicted that a long term nitrogen rich diet lends itself to cause both structural and functional deformities of the kidney and may eventually cause renal hyperfiltration (Poortmans and Francaux,1999). Due to the high nitrogen content of creatine much research has been done into whether there is a long term danger to using the supplement. In 1998 a rather controversial paper was published by Pritchard and Kalra which researched into the possible links between use of creatine as a sports supplement, following the death of 3 American college wrestlers who were taking the substance. The article was published in the Lancet and became the topic of much debate in years to come. Pritchard and Kalra concluded that there was strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that creatine was responsible for the deterioration in renal function (Pritchard and Kalra,1998). The subject suffered with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis but despite this all markers of renal function were normal, such as creatinine clearance values. However, when the 25 year old subject was studied 8 years later creatinine clearance had decreased considerably. The male admitted to using creatine based supplements during a pre season football training program which Pritchard and Kalra felt was an underlying factor in the deterioration in the mans renal functio ning. This paper was a topic for much debate, due largely to the fact that the patient investigated by Pritchard and Kalra had underlying renal issues prior to the study, which the authors seem to ignore in their conclusions. The size of the study is also questionable due to the fact that there was only a sole participant therefore no a repeat or variety in results taken. There were also just 4 references noted at the end of the article suggesting that Pritchard and Kalra may not have taken into full account all other evidence that had been obtained by other studies. Due to the ever increasing popularity of creatine supplementation, along with its continued link with renal failure there have been a vast number of studies in this area. A study by Edmunds et al in 2000 focused on the progression of renal disease in Han:Sprague-Dawley (SPRD) rat models with cystic kidney disease. The rats undertook the loading phase of supplementation which I described in the introduction. This is the same technique used in humans to increase the amount of free phosphocreatine. Obviously, the intake of creatine was reduced, in comparison with humans, to 2g/kg of diet for the one week loading phase, followed by a 5 week period where the dosage administered was 0.4g/kg of diet to compare. The authors measured the progression of renal disease my taking kidney size records as well as determining cyst scores. The cysts often develop in chronic cases where the cysts grow and inhibit the blood filtering capabilities of the organ (Parker,2007).Edmunds hypothesis stated that due to the relatively short life span of the animals used, any impact that creatine supplementation has on renal function could be more readily detected. The findings supported this hypothesis as the rats that had been administered with creatine suffered greater renal disease progression than the control group. The kidney sizes were as much as 10% larger, in some cases, than the control group which is an indicator of further progression of the condition. The creatine was administered in a creatine/glutamine mixture which supplement manufacturers often do as glutamine is believed to significantly improve absorption of creatine. As expected all other markers of renal function agreed with the hypothesis. Creatinine serum clearance was 23% lower in the supplemented group and cyst scored were 23% greater compared with the control group. At the time of Edmunds paper there had still not been a long term controlled study into the effect creatine supplementation may have on renal function. Although the findings seem conclusive I feel it is important to consider that animal models were used as oppose to humans, although this was partially due to the time restrictions. Also the sample sizes are adequate but by no means large with 14 males and just 12 females making up the creatine supplemented groups. As well as this the length of the study is quite short with the supplementing period lasting 6 weeks in total. Therefore it remains unclear as to the long term risks that can be associated with creatine and renal issues. In spite of this, the paper exacerbates the advice that athletes with any form of renal condition should avoid using creatine as an ergogenic aid. In contrast there numerous studies have taken place which have focused on the potential link between creatine and renal disorders and concluded that there is no health risk to taking the substance. In 1999, Poortmans and Francaux conducted a long term study on the issue. This was important because some of the investigations done around this time were short term and didnt account for the potential long term health risks, if creatine were to be taken over a substantial period of time. Poortmans and Francaux refer to the controversial Lancet publication by Pritchard and Kalra in their introduction and used this to form their hypothesis that short and medium term creatine supplementation in men does not have any detrimental e
Friday, October 25, 2019
Physical, Mental, and Spiritual Journeys in Siddhartha Ã Ã Ã In Hesse's novel, Siddhartha the title character, Siddhartha leaves the Brahmins in search of Nirvana - spiritual peace.Ã The journey he endures focuses on two main goals - to find peace and the right path (http://www.ic.ucsb.edu/~ggotts/hesse/life/jennifer/html).Ã Joseph Mileck, the author of Hermann Hesse:Ã Life and Art, asserts that Siddhartha focuses on a sense of unity developed through Siddhartha's mind, body, and soul (Baumer).Ã Hesse's Siddhartha revolves around three central journeys - a physical, a mental, and a spiritual journey. Ã Siddhartha's journey begins with his physical journey.Ã This journey begins in Siddhartha's hometown.Ã At home, Siddhartha focuses his religious involvement in Brahmin rituals.Ã These rituals do not allow him to reach Nirvana so he decides to leave his village and follow the teachings of the Samanas.Ã The Samanas are men who believe that temporary life is only an illusion, and they practice extreme self-denial and meditation (Welch 58).Ã Siddhartha's journey with the Samanas begins as he pulls himself away from the structure of everyday life. However, Siddhartha finds this life to be unfulfilling and wasteful. When Siddhartha decides to leave the Samanas, he hypnotizes the leader in order to convince him to let Siddhartha move away (http://www.imsa.edu/~trasched/siddhartha/phys.html). Ã Eventually, Siddhartha decides to attempt the teachings of Buddha.Ã However, this lifestyle leaves him unsatisfied as well.Ã Even though Siddhartha decides not to follow the teachings of Buddha, he says, "I have seen one man, one man only, before whom I must lower my eyes.Ã I will never lower my eyes before any other man.Ã No o... ...ted Aver, Linda. http://splavc.spjc.cc.fl.us/hooks/ew/AverSidd.html. Baumer, Franz. Hermann Hesse. United States, 1969. Cliff's Notes. "Hesse's Steppenwolf and Siddhartha." Nebraska, 1973. Hesse, Herman. Siddhartha. Dover Publications, 1998. http://www.imsa.edu/~trasched/siddhartha/ment.html. http://www.imsa.edu/~trasched/siddhartha/phys.html. http://www.imsa.edu/~trasched/siddharthat/spirit.html. Smith, Sheila. "Siddhartha's Journey." http://splavc.spjc.cc.fl.us/hooks/ew/SmithSidd.html. Sobel, J and HHP. "Form, Style, and Content in Siddhartha.". Ã Ã http://www.ic.ucsb.edu/~ggotts/hess/wroks/jensid.html. Sobel, J and HHP. "Hermann Hesse." http://www.ic.ucsb.edu/~ggotts/hesse/life/jennifer.html. The Nobel Foundation. "Autobiography of Hermann Hesse.". Ã Ã http://www.nobel.se/laureates/literature-1946-1-autobio.html. Ã Ã
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Reliability and validity in assessment are of crucial importance.Ã Issues in administration can have a significant impact on the reliability and validity of assessment results and the inferences that are made about studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance based on these results.It is essential therefore that proper techniques of administration be adopted in ensuring that the integrity of assessments is preserved and that the inference made about studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance are indeed reliable and valid.Administration considerations will differ based on the nature of the assessment, whether it is formal or informal. For formal assessments there are usually pre-established guidelines for the examiner to oversee the administration of the assessment instrument. It is important that the examiner familiarize him/herself with the proper techniques of administering the specific test so that the reliability and validity of the test can be ensured and preserved.While the assessment may not require for mal training to develop competence the test administrator must understand the protocols of the test, understand what is expected of the students, and follow correct and exact procedures during test administration to ensure that equal and fair conditions are provided for all students.McLoughlin and Lewis (2005) caution that Ã¢â¬Å"measures administered by untrained testers produce highly questionable results that must be considered invalidÃ¢â¬ ( p. 90). It is therefore essential that examiners are comfortable with all exam procedures and follow these explicitly to avoid invalidating the results produced from such tests.Additionally the tester must also be sensitive to the needs of the students during assessment. The examiner cannot Ã¢â¬Å"praise, prompt or give informationÃ¢â¬ (McLoughlin & Lewis, 2005, p. 94). Examiners must understand correct protocol during test administration. Certain practices should be avoided.The examiner should refrain from confirming or correcting (McL oughlin & Lewis, 2005, p. 95) studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ responses during the test as well as they should avoid coaching students in order to elicit correct responses. Depending on the purpose and nature of the test the examiner may be permitted to repeat oral items for students.The examiner should also encourage students to complete or respond to all items on the test and may use questioning during tests to encourage students to respond to items. Evidently the ability of the tester to adequately preside over the test is a very critical issue in ensuring that test results are valid and reliable.The test administrator sets the pace and the outcome of the test pivots around his/her ability to ensure transparency. By ensuring that the tester is adequately prepared for the test the possibility of incorrect administration procedures will be avoided.The test environment should also be such as provides an atmosphere in which the students can work successfully. As McLoughlin and Lewis (2005) indicate , Ã¢â¬Å"this environment can influence test performanceÃ¢â¬ (p. 90).The test environment should be as comfortable as possible for all students, with good ventilation, adequate and comfortable seating for each student where necessary, adequate space for writing, appropriate lighting, comfortable temperature, minimal external disruptions, minimal distractions such as a view through a window, passersby, other individuals passing freely in and out of the examination room or other visual distractions such as posters.Additionally the examiner has to ensure that all material required for the test are present including material students will need to complete test items.While it is ideal that the test environment is free of all these encumbrances, all these conditions do not have to be satisfied to ensure the validity and reliability of the test. In some instances some aspects of the environment, though they are not at their optimal levels, may not affect studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance.How ever, it is difficult to determine how studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance will be affected by the environment and thus the examiner should attempt to ensure that the setting is as close to ideal as possible. The examiner could also exercise discretion during test administration to determine if the location of the exam needs to be changed or the exam discontinued completely because of environment. It is not far fetched that a well-prepared environment becomes inappropriate at some point during the exam.Based on the reaction of the students the examiner could determine if the distractions or disruptions are sufficient enough to affect student performance. These provisions ensure that, as far as possible, no external factors negatively impact student performance and that students are adequately provided with the right tools with which to reap success.Another consideration is the preparation of the students for the test. Students should be adequately informed of the time, date, location and p urpose of the test as well as be aware of what exactly is required of them.The time of day is of extreme importance. Researches have been conducted to determine the time of day that will produce the optimal results for students. Recently Hansen, Janssen, Schiff, Zee and Dubocovich (2005) found that students were more vigorous during the evening than in the morning and thus were in a better frame of mind to complete tests.It is difficult, however, for examiners of standardized test to have any impact on the time of administration since often the examining body has a preset time for completion.Another administration consideration is the rapport between the students and the examiner. McLoughlin and Lewis (2005) recommend that the examiner familiarizes him/herself with the students and help themÃ feel at ease with the examiner. The examiner should also explain the purpose of and orient them towards the test. This includes describing test activities, length and difficulty of the test. The examiner should also inform students of proper exam protocol, informing them how to ask for assistance during the test as well as explain to them any timing signals that may be given. The examiner should encourage students to ask questions about aspects of the test administration that they are uncertain about.Adequate provisions should be made for students to have a break, if possible, during a lengthy test so as to Ã¢â¬Å"ward off fatigueÃ¢â¬ (McLoughlin & Lewis, 2005, p. 99). These practices would ensure that students know what is expected of them before the test begins so that no time is wasted during the test.The procedures for administering informal classroom assessment are much the same. The classroom teacher should ensure that students are adequately prepared for the test, are aware of the test objectives, are given adequate time to complete it and that no unfair assistance is provided to any student.Also the teacher should make sure the environment is conducive to tes ting with convenient seating and minimal opportunity for cheating. Additionally in administrating certain types of assessment such as observations and interviews, the teacher has to ensure that the objectives to be tested are clearly laid out, with clearly outlined criteria for scoring so that bias is avoided and each student is scored fairly.The use of rating scales, rubrics and checklists help to ensure that assessment is focused and that the correct behaviors are being observed. However at times a teacher may later find that these instruments do not adequately measure all the attributes and that certain key attitudes are not catered for.This is one disadvantage with rating scales and checklists, if a student displays a positive behavior that is not outlined in the rating scale no provision is made for it and the child is disadvantaged.The purpose of assessment is to ensure that each students has an equal chance of performing at their best in the test and thereby demonstrate to th e examiner whether or not they possess certain skills, knowledge or attitudes.Therefore once the examiner adopts these administration considerations the possibilities of measurement error are diminished and test administration conditions will have minimal, if any, negative effect, on student outcome. Students will therefore be able to meaningfully demonstrate their knowledge, skills and attitudes to the teacher. ReferencesHansen, M., Janssen, I., Schiff, A., Zee, P. C. & Dubocovich, M. L. (2005). The impact of school daily schedule on adolescent sleep. Pediatrics, 115, 1555Ã¢â¬â1561.McLoughlin, J. A. & Lewis, R. B. (2005). Assessing students with special needs. (6th ed.). NJ: Prentice-Hall/Merrill.
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Debut albums Essay Example Debut albums Essay Debut albums Essay Essay Topic: The Secret Life Of Bees Life neverseems to be the waywe want it butwe have to liveit the bestwaywecan! There isnoperfectlife. but we can make full it with PERFECT MOMENTS HOPE A ; END R ever at that place for everyone! Depends on us how we deal with them. . A Hopeless End! or An ENDLESS HOPE! The joy that u give to othersis 500 joy thatflows backinto ur life! A happy bosom makes a cheerful face! May all ur yearss b every bit lovely as ur bosom Destiny Is No Matter Of Chance. It Is A Matter Of Choice. It Is Not A Thing To Be Waited For. It Is A Thing To Be Achieved. When there is confusion between your bosom and head. Don`t listen to your head because head knows everything But your bosom knows merely U. The difference between a successful individual And others is non a deficiency of strength. Not a deficiency of cognition Rather deficiency of will. Success isn`t key 2 felicity. . but felicity is 500 cardinal 2 successÃ¢â¬ ¦ . so keep yourself happy 2 B happy A ; successful. . We Will Open The Book. Its Pages Are Blank We Are Traveling To Put Wordss On Them Ourselves The Book Is Called OPPORTUNITY . Each Of Us Makes Our Own Weather Determines The Color Of The Skies In The Emotional Universe Which We Inhabit. Don`t Think About What You Have GotÃ¢â¬ ¦ Think About How To Use It That You Have GotÃ¢â¬ ¦ A paper winging in air isdue to its fortune buta bird is winging due to its attempt. So if fortune is non with u. attempts are ever at that place to back up U Hard-work is like stepss and fortune is like lift. Sometimes lift may neglect but stepss will ever take you to the top. Have a successful life. Fallen flowers can non mount back. So do non believe about the yesteryear. Love the Present. Live for the Future. with a beautiful A ; sweet Smile. ? Every adult male has in himself a continent of undiscovered characterÃ¢â¬ ¦ Happy is he who acts as the `COLUMBUS` to his ain soulÃ¢â¬ ¦ . Beautiful Message by Mother Teresa: If you can non love a individual whom you see. so how can you love GOD whom you have neer seen Experiences are like moving ridges. They come to u on shore of life. Drag the sand from beneath your pess. But each moving ridge makes u stand on a new base. If you worry about a problem it becomes dual but when u smiling at it. itdisappears like a bubble so ever smile atyour job. maintain smiling If people around you. are seeking to draw you down. Be proud about it. B`coz it merely means one thing that: YOU ARE ABOVE THEM sugariness in your address endowment in your head love in your bosom peace in your eyes strength in your custodies A ; I wish ever victoryin your life Persistence Is The Twin Sister Of Excellence One Is A Matter Of Quality The Other A Matter Of Time Ã¢â¬ ¦ Work For A Cause Not For Applause Live Life To Express Not To Impress Don`t Strive To Make our Presence Noticed Just Make Your Absence Felt. Luck is likesand in custodies. Itwill sneak outthrough fingers. no matergripped steadfastly or heldloosely. Merely hands inthe praying position can salvage it It is better to shout than to be angry. because choler hurts others while cryings flow mutely threw the psyche and cleanses the bosom. . Make Good to Everyone Without Expecting Much. . As an old adage says: -Some Fragrance ever remains in HANDS of Those who Distribute ROSE. . ! An Airplane is Always Safe at GroundBut It`s non Made for That. So Always Take Some Meaningful Risks in Life to Achieve Great PleasureÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . Very true line When nails grow long we cut nails. non our fingers. Similarly wn misinterpretations grow up. cut ur self-importance non ur relation! Simple line but great significance Empty Pockets teaches million things in life But. Full Pockets spoil`s you in million ways. Personality is: Who we are and what we do when everybody is watching. . ! Fictional character is: Who we are and what we do when Cipher is watching. Frogs had competition to Reach Top of Hill. AllFrogs shouted. Its Impossible. But 1 Frog Reachedthe Top How? He wasDeaf Be DEAF toNEGATIVE Words A Valuable Lesson that A Traffic Signal Teach Us: Every Problem is like a Red Signal. If we Wait for Some Time. It will Turn Green. Power and money are fantastic beginnings if they remain in pocket but they are awful Masterss once they enter the caput. Every small smiling can touch somebody`s bosom. No 1 is born happy. But all of us are born with the ability to make felicity. Always be hpy Silence is the fencing around wisdom! If your pes faux pass. U can ever recover your balance. But if your lingua faux pass. Uracil can neer remember the words Past is Waste Paper. Present is News Paper. Future is Question Paper. Life is Answer Paper. So. Care to the full Read A ; Write it and bask life! Every job in life has a gift indoors. . So don`t get upset when you face job. It may hold more beautiful stoping than your outlook. Don`t call over what is gone. Smile about what remains. No affair whats lost. You can still ever find value in what is left. ! A Victorious Horse doesn`t know what is wining. He merely runs in hurting given by his rider. So whenever Ur in hurting. believe that God wants u to win. All birds find shelter during a rain. But Eagle avoids rain by winging above the Clouds. Problems r common. but attitude makes the difference We think there is eternal clip to populate. But we neer know which minute is last So portion attention. . Love and observe every minute of LIFE. Comparison is The Best Manner to Judge Our Advancement. But Not With Others. Compare ur Yesterday With Ur Today To Get The Best Consequences. Definition of Human Being by A Philosopher: A Animal That Cuts Trees. A ; Makes Paper. A ; On Those Documents They Writes SAVE TREES Every successful individual has a painful narrative. Every painful narrative has a successful stoping. Accept the hurting A ; acquire ready to success. Great Idea: When we cant laugh once more on the same gag. so why do we shout once more and once more for the one and the same hurting. BEST LINES: Dont read success narratives. You will acquire merely message. Read failure narratives. You will acquire some thoughts to acquire success. There is ever a hope and an terminal. It depends on us how we deal with them. We can look at it as a hopeless terminal. or an Endless Hope. Life neer turns the manner we want. But we live it in the best manner we can. There`s no perfect life. But we can Fill it with perfect minutes Mistake increase your experience and experience lessening your errors You learn from errors While the other learn from your sucsess. Life is Better When You`re Happy But Life is At its Best When Other Peoples Are Happy Because Of U. Be Inspired. Give Peace. . And Share Smile. You Can`t Bringing Back The Past. For It is All Gone. All You Can Make is Let Go. Move on. and Make Better Memories For The Future. Feelingss are like moving ridges. We can`t halt them from coming. But we can take which 1 to surf. It`s a beautiful balmy twenty-four hours! Think about this: There are about 8 billion people on Earth. and you are traveling to allow merely ONE individual to destroy your twenty-four hours? Have a fantastic twenty-four hours! ! Sometimes you got ta do more than sway the boat. SometimesÃ¢â¬ ¦ you got ta leap in caput foremost and do some moving ridges. . It`s a beautiful twenty-four hours! Plant around you today the SEEDS of Optimism and Kindness. . and tomorrow you can harvest its FRUITS of Love and HappinessÃ¢â¬ ¦ appy weekend! STRENGTH doesn`t come from what you can Make It comes from OVER COMING the THINGS you Once THOUGHT you COULDN`T. Have a great twenty-four hours! Surround yourself with people who are traveling to raise u HIGHER! Life is already filled with those whowant to convey u down to your articulatio genuss. There areno random Acts of the Apostless. Weare all connected. Ucan no more separateone life from anotherthan Us can divide a breezefrom the air current. God Bless Us Having Lips. and non usingthem to smile. is like holding. A million dollars in the bankand burying theaccount figure. SMILEand have a hpy twenty-four hours! To respect people who are HIGHER than u. it`s ORDINARY. To esteem people who are LOWER than u. it`s EXTRA ordinary. Sometimes you got Tas shut up. get down your pride and accept that you re incorrect. It`s non giving up. it`s called turning up. When Iis replaced by WE . . Even ILLNESS turns into WELLNESS. Have a happy weekend! U Better Live Ur Best and Act your Best 2day For today Is The Certain Preparation For Tomorrows and All Other Tomorrow That Follow It is non because things are hard that we do non make bold. it is because we do non make bold that they are hard. The mindis like a clock Thatis invariably running down. It has to be woundUp day-to-day with good ideas. Don`t go throughlife. Turn through life Anything is more of import When U can non acquire it. When U can acquire it This is less of import for u. This is nature of every homo. If your actions inspire others to woolgather more. larn more. make more and go more. you are a leader. Every bad state of affairss have something positive. . Even a stopped clock is right twice a twenty-four hours. Logic Of Time When Time Never Stops For Us. Then Why Do We Always Wait For The Right Time. . ? No Time Is Incorrect To Make The Right Thing. ! Waves Are Inspiring. Not Because They Rise And Fall. But Because They Never Fail To Rise Again. Have A Rising Day. An Inspiring Fact: If You Can Still Smile When you are Wholly Broken Up. Then There Can be Nothing That Can Break you Following Time! A Lifetime Inspiring Thought Always Try Your Best To Get Whatever You Love. . Otherwise You Will Be Forced To Love Whatever You Get. . Sucess does non depend on doing of import determinations rapidly. but depends on your speedy actions on of import determinations. Forget Past Failures! Focus on the NOW and What needs to be done today to assist you accomplish your dreams! When you are following your energy and making what you want all the clip. the differentiation between work and play dissolves. When unexpectd state of affairss come in forepart of you. what does it intend. . ? It means that you are Traveling Ahead Faster than you expectd. . ! Great motivational words written on the entryway of an American university. . I know I am something. because God doesnt create refuse. ! Every Morning Get Up `n Look Through The List Of Richest People In The World. If Your Name Is Not There. Please Go To Work! Learn to face your frights head on because sometimes what you fear is non even worth your fright. God has given you what it takes to accomplish all your purposes in Life. Therefore put into action your attempt foremost befor u think about a miracle. I want to be the greatest of me. For this is all I can make. It is my wish that you promise me this. you be the greatest of you. ! A Stone is broken by the last shot. This doesn`t mean 1st shot was useless. Success is a consequence of continues Daily Effor. ! Waiting to win is common to all. But working to win is manner of a title-holder! Be a Champion and win the universe! ! A lamp doesnt speak. . It introduces itself through its visible radiation. . Achievers neer expose themselves. But their accomplishments expose them! Best ground for our failures We are anticipating ORANGE by standing under a MANGO tree! So We should alter Either our outlook or tree. ! When you`re following your energy `n making what you want all the clip. the differentiation between work and play dissolves. ! In The CAMERA Of Your Mind. Load The ROLL Of Your Good Thoughts. . Press The BUTTON Of Your Hard Work. . `n Get The Photo Of Your Success. Confidence Helps To Put Some Aim. . But. Self Confidence Helps To Achieve That Aim. So. Never Lose Your Self Confidence. . ! If You Are Successful You Will Win Some False Friends And Some True Enemies Succeed Anyhow Be Like A Dolphin. Even Though There Are Dangerous Sharks Arround That In The Ocean. It Simply Enjoys The Swimming`n Celebrates On Its Own. . ! Victory Is Not The Property Of Brilliants. . It Is The Crown For Those Who Bow Themselves In Front Of Hard Work `n Confidence When Flood Comes Fish Eat Ants When Flood Goes Down Ants Eat Fish Time Matters. . GOD Gives Opportunity To Everyone. Negative Thinking IsAs Important AsCreativeThinking. BecauseIf Creative Thinking Invents Aeroplane. Then Negative Thinking Invents Parachute. Umbrella cant halt Rain but make us 2 Stand in Rain. . Assurance May Not Bring Success But It Gives Power To Face Any challenge. ! Whatever we do. We Must Always Remember Our Aim. If You Want To Fly With EAGLES. Don`t Swim With DUCKS. TIME Is A Rare LuxuryWhich Can Never Be Purchased At Any Cost. So when. Person Spends it For U. It defines the deepness of attention One Has For you. ! A Soft Nature Of A Person Doesn`t Mean Weakness. . Remember. . Nothing Is Softer Than Water. . But Its Force Can Break The Strongest Of Rock. ! Nice one: If You Love Someone. Be Brave Enough To State Them. . Otherwise Be Brave Enough To Watch Them To Be Loved By Person Else. . ? Amazing Lines: Live Well `n Happily. Its The Best Retaliation To Those Who Have Hurt You n Avoided You . ! Without traversing the worst state of affairss. No 1 can touch the best corners of life. Dare to confront any state of affairs. Try Hard to Achieve high in Life. It Is Always Good To CompromiseOnly When The Other Side Understands Your Feelingss. But Its Not Good To BendSo Much That u Lose Your Being Respect Those Who Find Time For You In Their Busy Schedule. . But Really Love Those Who Never See Their Schedule. . When You Need Them. ! Best Attitude For Life: My Pain May Be The Reason For Somebody`s Laugh But My Laugh Must Never Be The Reason For Somebody`s Pain. ! We may non Achieve Everything that we Dream. But We will non Achieve Anything unless we Dream. . ! ! Night is longer than twenty-four hours for those who dream `n Day is longer than dark for those who make their Dreams come true. Really Nice LinesÃ¢â¬ ¦ Never take the Help Of Tears to Show Your Emotions. . `n Never Take the Help Of Words to Show Your Anger . . ! When the Mirror of LIFEGets Dirty with the Fog of Reality. Try Wiping it out with Your FAITH. You Can See the Clear Reflection Of Your Dream: ) Making memorable minutes forYourself is non a large thing. But. You being the cardinal individual in others memorable minutes is an ageless thing. . ! ! Journey of Life Is Exciting when You challenge Your ain Weakness. . Sometimes Your Enemy Teaches You Better Than Your Friends. ! I hated every minute of Training. but I Said don`t Quit. Suffer now `n Live the remainder of Your Life as a Champion LIFE is really similar to a Boxing Ring. . DEFEAT is non declared When you fall DOWN. . It`s declared when You REFUSE to Get Up. . ! ! No Matter How Many Times The Teeth Bite The Tongue. They Still Stay Together In One Mouth. That`s The Spirit Of FORGIVENESS. . ! If your caput Tells u onething andyour hearttells u another ; before Us do anything. Decide foremost whether U have a betterhead or a better heart Nice Stating from aBroken HeartI`ll ContinueMy LoveEven IfMy Love Fails`Coz. Howwould I hate the heartwhich made me toLove more than My Life I Knows That A Lot of People Hate Me. Because I am Bad. But. Few Peoples Surely Love Me. Because They Know That My Little Goodness Is Not Fake. . Never keep your caput high with pride or self-importance. Remember. Even the victor of a gold decoration gets his decoration merely when he puts his caput down ? Living entirely is truly better than life with bogus people. who hate you but move like loving you. Great Thought: When we cant laugh once more on the same gag. so why do we shout once more and once more for the one and the same hurting. Without Tasting The Worst Situation. No One Can Taste The Best Thing Of Life. . . . Dare To Face Anything in Your Mysterious Life Don`t Think About What You Have GoÃ¢â¬ ¦ . Think About How To Use It That You Have GotÃ¢â¬ ¦ . A paper flyingin air is due to its fortune but a birdis winging due to its attempt. So if luck isnot with u. attempts arealways at that place to back up U Nothing is predestination. the obstructions of your yesteryear can go the gateways that leads to the new beginnings. Life Will Never Provide Warranties and Guarantees It Can Only Provide Possibilities and Opportunities To Convert Them intosuccess! ! ! Without forgiveness life is governed by an eternal rhythm of bitterness and revenge. Never tell people how to make things. State them what to make and they will surprise you with their inventiveness. Management cardinal for success. if you don`t like any regulation. Merely follow it. make the top And alter the regulation. Life is at its weakest When There`s more Doubt than trust But Life is at its strongest When you learn How to swear In malice of The uncertainties. Erasers are for people who make mistakes. But a better expression: Erasers are for people willing to rectify their errors. Do non do your purpose like the garden because everyone walk on it But do your purpose like the sky so everyone want to touch it. There are merely two Thingss you have to Do in life. . You have to dice. . And You have to live Until you die. . You make up All the restÃ¢â¬ ¦ . . The power is detested. and miserable the life. of him who wishes to be feared instead than to be loved. TRY is a little word that can do a Big Difference. . If we TRY. we merely RISK FAILURE. But if we dont TRY so we ENSURE FAILURE. Comparsion is the best manner to judge our advancement. . But non with others. . Compare Your Yesterday with your Today. . Some things you have to make every twenty-four hours. Eating seven apples on Saturday dark alternatively of one a twenty-four hours merely isn`t traveling to acquire the occupation done. Yesterday I was Clever. So. I wanted to Change the World. But Today I am Wise. So I am Changing Myself. . It is better to merit honours And non hold them than To hold them and non merit them. Success isn`t a affair of being 500 best nd winning vitamin D race. Success is a affair of managing vitamin D worst neodymium still completing 500 race. A sundown here is a Dawn on the other terminal of the worldWe must NEVER give up. BecauseWhat appears to be theend may really be aNew Get downing The head is like a clockThat is invariably running down. It hasto be woundUp day-to-day with goodthoughts. Don`t go through life. Grow through life Anything is more of import When you can non acquire it. When you can acquire it This is less of import for you. This is nature of every homo. If your actions inspire others to woolgather more. larn more. make more and go more. you are a leader. The Most Deciding neodymium Motivating Sentence Which should Always Be Followed In Life. The Race is non Over Because I Haven`t WON Yet A Child onFarm Sees PlaneFly Overhead. AndDreams of a FarAway Place. The Pilot on The Plane SeesThe Farmhouse. AndDreams ofHis Home. That`s Life A mountain is non higher than our assurance it will be under our feets. if we reach the topÃ¢â¬ ¦ Coins ever make sound but The currency notes are ever soundless. So. when your value increases Keep yourself unagitated and soundless. When u feel depressed. confused or hurt. Don`t worry stand in forepart of a mirror. U will happen the best one to work out your job. Trust Yourself! Honey bees must tap two 100 flowers To do one bead of honey. . Remember: The sweetest wages comes from the hardest battle. . The basic difference between God and Human. . God ; gives. gives. gives and 4gives. Human ; GETS. gets. gets and 4gets. Everybody is weak. Everybody fails. Bing strong is contending. It`s difficult and it`s painful and It`s every twenty-four hours. It`s what we have to make. When you believeÃ¢â¬ ¦ something can be done. your head will happen the ways to make it. Believing in a solution paves the manner to a solution! ! To happen what you seek in the route of life. the best adage of all is that which says: Leave no rock unturned. Peoples frequently say that Motivation doesn`t last. Well. neither does bathing Ã¢â¬â That`s why we recommend it daily. Luckey is who get the chance Brilliant is who creates da oppertunity Winner is who uses the chance Have A Great Day! Best Of LucK. Life is excessively short. If we work Good. Or If we work Bad. In 2 instances life will stop. So if we work good than we are died peacefully. Whenever you see a successful individual you see the public glorifications. neer see the private forfeits to make themÃ¢â¬ ¦ We must halt presuming that a thing which has neer been done before likely can non be done at all. I know I`m Something. Because Go doesn`t Create GarbageÃ¢â¬ ¦ Words written on the Entrance of An American UniversityÃ¢â¬ ¦ . . Can we make woo in the eventide today? I`m in a good temper Just a small spot of snoging and seize with teething Reply me shortly! Urs fondly MOSQUITO Maturity is achieved when a individual postpones immediate pleasances for long-run values. Do non restrict your challenges Challenge your bounds. Born with personality is an accident. BUT Dying as a personality is an accomplishment. MY Manner OF LIFE. Peoples Laugh Because I am Different. And one Laugh Because They Are All the Same. Thats Called`ATTITUDE` . LIVE IT YOUR OWN WAY Born with the personality is an Accident. But To decease as a `Personality is an Achievement` . . Achieve the best in youe Life! ! Old construct: Do or Die New construct: Do b4 u die Latest construct: Don`t dice. until u do . Champions aren`t made in the gym. Champions are made from something They have deep inside a Desire. a Dream. a Vision. Take the first measure in FAITH you don`t have to see the whole stairway merely take the first measure The ultimate step of a adult male is non where he stands in minutes of comfort. but where he stands at times of challenge and contention. Life is a great travel trip. . Problem is that it doesnt come with a map. We`ve to seek our ain ways to make the Destinations. . ! Now the World is going a Bad Place to Populate In. . Not because of Bad People. . But Due to Silence of the Good Peoples. . Have a Peaceful Day. . Always have a alone character like salt. It`s presence is non felt But it`s absence makes all things tasteless. Golden words If Peoples Around You Are Trying to Pull You Down. Be Proud of It! It Merely Means One Thing. That You Are Above Them. The whole secret of a successful life Is to happen out what is one`s fate to make. And so make it. Never hold yourself entirely responsible for any bad luck in life because no individual raindrop is neer entirely responsible for any inundation. Never alter your originality For the interest of others. Because no 1 can play your function Better than you. So be yourself. You are the best. The art of acquiring person else to make something you want done because he wants to make it. The boundaries which divide life from decease are at best shadowy and vague. Who shall state where one ends. and the other Begins? It is difficult to neglect. But it is worse neer to hold tried to win. Winners believe that they create their ain fortune by their actions ; also-rans believe in good and bad fortune. The significance of a adult male Is non in What he attains But In what He longs to achieve. A antic quotation mark for life: Satisfy the individual who expects from U. Rather than surprising the individual who neer expects anything. Above all. dispute yourself. You may good surprise yourself at what strengths you have. What you can carry through. When you retrieve how difficult it is to alter yourself. You begin to understand what small opportunity we have of altering others. Look at the Clock when u R sitting merely. But Never Look at Clock When U R working. The Hard Reality of Life is that. . When u demand ADVICE. Everyone is ready to Help You. . But When u demand HELP. Everyone is Ready toADVISE You. Failure is the lone chance to get down the same work with more intelligency. . A good program of today is better than a great program of tomorrow. Look backward with satisfaction A ; look frontward with assurance. If you want to bask anything. ever think today is the first twenty-four hours But If you want to accomplish anything ever think today is the last twenty-four hours. In each individual twenty-four hours we smile and laugh so many times. We neer thank Allah afterevery smiling but wedo incrimination complain Him for every tear we cry Once a wise adult male was asked: What is intending of life? ? He said: Life itself has no significance. life is an chance to make a significance. . Life is excessively short. To Kiss Slowly. Laugh Insanely. Love Truly and Forgive Quickly Ã¢â¬ ¦ Never plan your character like a garden. Where anyone can walk. Plan your character like the sky. Where everyone candesire to make Hitler Life is Better When You`re Happy But Life is At its Best When Other Peoples Are Happy Because Of U. . Be Inspired. . Give Peace. . And Share Smile You Can`t Bring Back The Past. For It is All Gone. All You Can Make is Let Go. Move on. and Make Better Memories For The Future. Take a sweet smiling when you are insulted. Sometimes. a smiling is adequate to do them repent with their words. It is better to be admired than to be popular. Strive to be better yourself. and non to delight others If You Don`t Believe In Miracles. Possibly You`ve Forgotten You Are One ; ) Have A Happy Weekend! Enjoy! : -* There comes a clip when you have to halt retrieving your errors and travel on. No declinations in life. merely lessons. You can non ever wait for the perfect clip. sometimes you must make bold to leap. Have a great twenty-four hours! If people make you experience that you are less needful. learn to make this: Keep DISTANCE The 1 that angers you controls you. Don`t give anyone that power! particularly the 1 who does it deliberately. ? Have an exceeding twenty-four hours Never apologize for stating what you feelÃ¢â¬ ¦ . That`s like stating sorry for being REAL. One prevarication is all it takes for person to lose involvement in you. It`s ever best to be upfront. staying existent and to state the truth Don`t point out other people`s defects because you`re non perfect. You have to look in the mirror before you can look out the window. A lingua has no castanetss but it can ache someone`s feelings. So ever be concious and be wise on what you`ll say. A mountain is non higher than your assurance. . for it will be under your pess when you reach the top. . Have a cool twenty-four hours! Hot caputs and cold Black Marias can neer work out anything. Scarcity is numbering the figure of seeds in an apple. Abundance is contemplating the figure of apples in a seed. May U have an abundant life! Our life is filled with a promiseof beautiful experiences. but merely if westop and notice all the small things thatmake up the whole image. A valuable lesson that a traffic signal Teachs us: Every job is like a Red Signal. If you wait for some clip. it will Turn Green. REJECTIONS has a utile intent that is. for us to larn either to alter ourselves for the better or to warrant who we are. Happiness is like a rainbow. Sometimes we can merely see it after weve shed adequate cryings in our cloudy yearss. May you find happiness every twenty-four hours! HOPE is the small voice you hear whisper maybe when it seems the full universe is shouting no. Never lose hope. Have a great twenty-four hours! Alternatively of wishing you were person else. be proud of who you are. you neer know whose been looking at you and wishing they could be YOU. aLways try 2 be happy watever Lyf brings. . retrieve dat evry 60 sec0nds u spend in being upset is a minute of felicity U can nver acquire back. In this universe some people will throw rocks in your way. It depends on you what you make from them. A WALL or A BRIDGE! Forget about the universe Failure. If you`re ever larning new things. you`re ever winning in life. Have a cool twenty-four hours! Do non take down your criterions to maintain anyone. Make them run into you at your degree. Self-respect is your power. The 3 C`s of Life: Choices. Opportunities. Changes. You must do a Choice to take a Chance or your life will neer Change. Everything that u losehas it`s ownway of returning back to u. the funnything is. it`s non ever the manner u expect it. Sometimes it`even more. Those who danced were thought to be rather insane by those who could non hear the music. Show the universe you ROCK! Have a fantastic twenty-four hours! HATING people takes excessively much clip. Forgive them. non because they deserve it but because you are on a HIGHER degree than they are. Don`t accuse unless you are able to PROVE and don`t incrimination unless you are able to FORGIVE and don`t forgive unless you are able to FORGET. Don`t confound your way with your finish. Just because it`s stormy now doesn`t mean you aren`t headed for sunlight. God bless us all! Life islike a camera. Focus onwhat`s of import. capturethe good times. develop from the negatives and if thingsdon`t work. justtake another shooting.
Monday, October 21, 2019
Due Diligence and Eavesdropping Due Diligence and Eavesdropping Due Diligence and Eavesdropping By Maeve Maddox Misused idioms on amateur blogs are not cause for surprise. When they appear in the writing of people who practice a profession, however, they probably warrant comment. Here are two expressions that people who use them in a professional context ought to know the meaning of. due diligence In law, Ã¢â¬Å"due diligenceÃ¢â¬ refers to proper attention to an undertaking in order to avoid committing an offense. In US business terminology, Ã¢â¬Å"due diligenceÃ¢â¬ is the Ã¢â¬Å"comprehensive appraisal of a business undertaken by or on behalf of a prospective buyer, especially in order to establish the exact scope of current assets and liabilities, and to evaluate future commercial potential.Ã¢â¬ The adjective due in this phrase means appropriate. The noun diligence means Ã¢â¬Å"earnest and persistent effort to accomplish what is undertaken.Ã¢â¬ A person practices or performs Ã¢â¬Å"due diligence.Ã¢â¬ One may even Ã¢â¬Å"do due diligence.Ã¢â¬ One may not, however, Ã¢â¬Å"do do diligence,Ã¢â¬ as this plastic surgeon advises a questioner on his site: You should do do diligence by checking the website of the American Board of Plastic Surgery, ASPSÃ ® and ASAPSÃ ® to evaluate the physicians [sic] training. Nor can one Ã¢â¬Å"do diligence,Ã¢â¬ as this business consultant advises: Do your diligenceÃ and make really sure before accepting an offer of employment here; ask the right questions. to eavesdrop The noun eaves refers to the edge of the roof that overhangs the side of a building. People often stand under the eaves to shelter from the rain (under the drop of the eaves). When they do so, they may be close to a window. If the window is open, they may be able to overhear a conversation thatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on in the adjacent room. Literally, Ã¢â¬Å"to eavesdropÃ¢â¬ is Ã¢â¬Å"to stand within the Ã¢â¬ËeavesdropÃ¢â¬â¢ of a house in order to listen to secrets.Ã¢â¬ Figuratively, Ã¢â¬Å"to eavesdropÃ¢â¬ is to listen secretly to private conversation. Eavesdropping is the noun for the activity. An eavesdropper is a person who listens secretly to the conversation of others. Nowadays, itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible to eavesdrop electronically. I have seen the following maimed versions of eavesdrop and its forms: The US is weighing its ease-dropping on western leadersÃ¢â¬â¢ policy- Newspaper headline (The incorrect spelling is also used three times in the article that follows). Feinstein Accuses CIA OfÃ Ease-DroppingÃ On Senate Panel Computers- Google article summary. I went into her room with my head down, she said you wereÃ ease droppingÃ on the phone, werenÃ¢â¬â¢t you?- Published novel. The words are closed compounds: eavesdrop, eavesdropping, and eavesdropper. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Spelling category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Words for Facial ExpressionsThat vs. Which20 Names of Body Parts and Elements and Their Figurative Meanings
Sunday, October 20, 2019
HEREJIAS HerejÃ a es un error en materia de fe , sostenido con pertinacia . Y hereje es aquel cristiano que en materia de fe se opone con pertinacia a lo que cree y propone la iglesia catÃ ³lica . ? Se ha modificado algun parametro de la religiÃ ³n catÃ ³lica romana por algÃ ºn pensamiento de fuera de ella ? ? Cuando o bajo que circunstancias ocurren las herejÃ as ? La definiciÃ ³n de herejÃ a como un "error" nos parcializa a tomar las herejÃ as de forma negativa y daÃ ±inas a la fÃ © cuando incluso como dijo San Pablo son refortificantes al confirmar unas ideas las cuales dado lo subjetivo de la religiÃ ³n han dado lugar a duda. Ademas las herejÃ as siempre han surgido en personas que han profundizado en sus pensamientos acerca de la religion no en personas sumisas o ignorantes , debido a momentos de gran insatisfacciÃ ³n intelectual o incluso de gran insatisfacciÃ ³n social . Si algunas de las herejÃ as continuaban y llegaban a tener una autoridad eclesiastica y ciertas reglas teolÃ ³gicas se hubieran confirmado como otras religiones , entonces ? no fuÃ © la religiÃ ³n cristiana una religiÃ ³n herÃ ©tica del judaismo ? ? no era una doctrina religiosa ms dentro de todas las doctrinas religiosas orientales? Como las herejÃ as surgian en momentos de decadencia , eran muy rigurosas moralmente y se regian por sus condiciones locales : en Alejandria eran ms misticas e iban ms a lo divino , en cambio en AntioquÃ a eran ms racionalistas y realistas , apuntaban ms al ser humano . Por ejemplo , Arrio en Egipto no aceptaba la naturaleza divina de Cristo . De hecho , quÃ © dificil conciliar la naturaleza divina y humana de Cristo , hasta San Agustin estuvo seducido por la doctrina de la dualidad de materia-espiritu del gnosticismo . La palabra Gnosis se emplea como alusiÃ ³n a un conocimiento esotÃ ©rico , aprendido no por aprendizaje sino por revelaciÃ ³n divina ., por una iluminaciÃ ³n que era regeneraciÃ ³n y divinizaciÃ ³n , ... Free Essays on Religous Beliefs Free Essays on Religous Beliefs HEREJIAS HerejÃ a es un error en materia de fe , sostenido con pertinacia . Y hereje es aquel cristiano que en materia de fe se opone con pertinacia a lo que cree y propone la iglesia catÃ ³lica . ? Se ha modificado algun parametro de la religiÃ ³n catÃ ³lica romana por algÃ ºn pensamiento de fuera de ella ? ? Cuando o bajo que circunstancias ocurren las herejÃ as ? La definiciÃ ³n de herejÃ a como un "error" nos parcializa a tomar las herejÃ as de forma negativa y daÃ ±inas a la fÃ © cuando incluso como dijo San Pablo son refortificantes al confirmar unas ideas las cuales dado lo subjetivo de la religiÃ ³n han dado lugar a duda. Ademas las herejÃ as siempre han surgido en personas que han profundizado en sus pensamientos acerca de la religion no en personas sumisas o ignorantes , debido a momentos de gran insatisfacciÃ ³n intelectual o incluso de gran insatisfacciÃ ³n social . Si algunas de las herejÃ as continuaban y llegaban a tener una autoridad eclesiastica y ciertas reglas teolÃ ³gicas se hubieran confirmado como otras religiones , entonces ? no fuÃ © la religiÃ ³n cristiana una religiÃ ³n herÃ ©tica del judaismo ? ? no era una doctrina religiosa ms dentro de todas las doctrinas religiosas orientales? Como las herejÃ as surgian en momentos de decadencia , eran muy rigurosas moralmente y se regian por sus condiciones locales : en Alejandria eran ms misticas e iban ms a lo divino , en cambio en AntioquÃ a eran ms racionalistas y realistas , apuntaban ms al ser humano . Por ejemplo , Arrio en Egipto no aceptaba la naturaleza divina de Cristo . De hecho , quÃ © dificil conciliar la naturaleza divina y humana de Cristo , hasta San Agustin estuvo seducido por la doctrina de la dualidad de materia-espiritu del gnosticismo . La palabra Gnosis se emplea como alusiÃ ³n a un conocimiento esotÃ ©rico , aprendido no por aprendizaje sino por revelaciÃ ³n divina ., por una iluminaciÃ ³n que era regeneraciÃ ³n y divinizaciÃ ³n , ...