Friday, November 29, 2019
Knowledge and power hand in hand, but whose hand is it? Regardless from where a person comes from, one is always under constant surveillance by someone in society, which in return affects everyone's individual actions and reactions. Foucault's Panopticism proves that our ideals we have gained from society do manipulate how we act and behave without realizing it. Our society's social factors and the knowledge we possess as a society can control one's action if one comprehends how power can control other individual's actions. Foucault's Panopticism created a prison that could achieve 100% observation by one overseer in a circular building to gain the knowledge of the prisoners and give the feeling of inferiority and powerlessness. Foucault believed all that is needed, then, is to place a supervisor in a central tower and shut up in each cell a madman...they are so many cages, so many small theaters, in which each actor is alone, perfectly individualized and constantly visible (319). The subject is never sure when and if they are being observed at all, leaving their ideals to self regulate and unconsciously become their own guardians. This surveillance objectifies the subjects in the cells, categorizes them and creates new social norms resulting from fear of being caught acting out of line. Foucault used the plague as a good example of how in everyday life the Panopticon's principles of power could come into effect if the norms of society were taken away and one power monitored your every action. He believed that the Panopticon and the plague were two of the same and yet different. One was an evil natural disaster while the other broke people down artificially for the sole purpose to gain power. Nevertheless, both resulted in a knowledge that controlled society and subjects that conformed to the government's new power almost instantly. The Panopticon was not only used as a form of punishment but also served as a laboratory; it could be used to carry out experiments, to alter behavior, to train or correct individuals (323). The Panopticon could test procedures, and change the behavior of the inmates because it had no social factors to affect the deviant behaviors in the people held within. It tried out the most effective forms of punishment and reward while teaching different techniques in order to distinguish which one was the best. The Panopticon made perfecting the exercise of power possible. Foucault states that Panopticon presents a cruel, ingenious cage (325), meaning that although the setting may seem inhuman, it is a work of intelligence at the time and for years to come. Nevertheless, Foucault recognized that the panoptic mechanism is not simply a hinge, a point of exchange between a mechanism of power and a function; it's a way of making power relations function, and making a function function through these power relations. (326). Many will view Foucault's Panopticism experiment as cruel and unnecessary, nevertheless the inmates in the Panopticon act as subjects of experiments to test more sufficient ways of labor, medicine, and ways of teaching that are helping our future by creating knowledge of a normlessness world and the power that could find how to completely eradicate deviance and deter the social factors that influence these behaviors. Today, in our society, most people take social factors that influence our actions for granted. Foucault believes that each man is a product of his society, and without society, there is no person. This means the knowledge that we possess as a society indirectly and without our recognition controls our actions and alters our knowledge. According to the sociologist, Sutherland, his theory of Differential Association states that not all people will experience the same personal and social conditions because criminal behavior is learned through interactions with others principally in intimate groups. Any person has the possibility to become more delinquent when there is an excess of definitions favorable for the deviant to break the law. When a person is in complete solitude and constant surveillance in the Panopticon, there is no chance to learn deviant behavior and constant surveillance that would deter criminal acts because of higher risks of being caught. Today, for example, when adolescents are in high school they are less likely to skip class when they know
Monday, November 25, 2019
barbarians essays To the peoples of ancient Greece, and later, Rome, a barbarian was anyone who was not of their extraction or culture. Because most of these strangers regularly practiced raids upon these civilizations, the term barbarian gradually started meaning, a person who was uncivilized, and regularly practiced the most vile and inhuman acts imaginable. Barbarians cannot think or act rationally. Barbarians are incapable of living according to written laws and only reluctantly tolerating kings. Their lust for gold is great, their love of drink never-ending. Barbarians can easily mean without restraints. Barbarians are usually barefooted and dirty. Many times the term barbarian is often used to refer to a person considered to be less civilized than the person using the term. However, barbarians and cavemen differ because barbarians are capable human beings who were raised in savage environments. It is evident that the past barbarians were depicted as humans with a harsh, brutish and savage life. Attila and Ivan the terrible led lives that were surrounded by violence and brutish murders. The Huns were classified as ferocious Barbarians, they lived a harsh life and were said to be slashed on their faces upon birth. This was the life Attila was molded into, before five he learned the use of the bow and sword. He was trained to ride horses even before walking. Attila became leader of the Huns by killing his brother, he was a lover of war and was a terror to men. These are the attributes presented by a barbarian. Ivan the terrible lived his life as an orphan. He was crowned at 17 and given the Roman title Czar. Ivan led a brutish life and used his power to strengthen Russias stature in the world. He was a strong leader who brought terror upon his people. The lives led by such barbarians constitutes a human being in being classified as a barbarian. Can a civilized person be classified differently from a Barbarian? A journ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
3G vs 4G - Essay Example This paper outlines the differences between Third Generation (3G) and Fourth Generation (4G) in the wireless technology. 4G technology is very high speed wireless Internet access. 4G technologies are basically the extension of the 3G technology in terms of speed and quality. Our analysis provides the major differences between 3G and 4G wireless technology in terms of price, speed, and quality. 1. Introduction In the past few years, modern communication and collaboration technologies have developed so fast, that it can be a bit hard to deal with everything new. Simply a couple of years before we had to get used to new technology with third generation communication systems. Without a doubt, this technology based systems were offering faster and better mobile communications standard as compared to ever before. 3G systems are offering data rate and download speed of up-to 3.1 Mega Bit per second. Though, not long ago an innovative standard was initiated by telecommunication corporations globally, known as 4G communication systems (GBESX; Chavis). In this scenario, 4G technology is the 4th generation of wireless cellular communication standards. At the present, there are 2 major categories of 4G communication and data networks developed in the United States: (GBESX; Chavis) WiMax: that is established by Sprint in cooperation with its technology and business associates LTE: that is a technology based extension of the GSM communication network used by T-Mobile, Verizon and AT&T In addition, both the Third Generation (3G) and Forth Generation (4G) are standards developed for wireless and mobile communication technology. Basically, these Standards demonstrate how the airwaves can be used for transmitting data and information. This data can be voice or files. 3G was initially launched to the public in Japan in the year 2001. However, currently, the networks for the majority of wireless communication technology and carriers in the United States were 3G. 3G communications technology networks were a major development over old technology of 2G communication networks, presenting superior speeds for information transfer. However, the upgrading that 4G presented over 3G is frequently less pronounced (Diffen). Basically, 3G and 4G mobile technology have many differences. The most of them are remarkable, their communication rate, rates of data transfer; signal quality, cost, technology and power are extremely divergent. Though, the application of 4G networks has faced a number of challenges and difficulties. Unlike 4G, 3G technology is not completely defined by leading bodies having control of wireless technology management (Chavis). Moreover, the purpose of the 4G communication network is to noticeably increase data transmission rate. As compared to earlier communication networks, it focuses on data and information transmission, rather than voice based data. That in itself is extraordinary, for the reason that it outlines the reformation from voice based m obile communication networks to data based mobile communication networks. It as well is a possible threat for cable Internet suppliers, for the reason that 4G speed can be as fast as optical fiber data transmission speed (Himalaya; Segan). 2. Upgrading From 3G to 4G This section discusses the motive behind the upgrade of the 3g technology to present 4g technology based systems. Though, all this accomplishment of the 3G network all through the globe took almost a decade. In this scenario, The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) plans to have the 4G communication network rolled out to the worldwide marketplace in a great deal more efficient as well as timely way. On the other hand, improvements made between 2G and 3G necessitate
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Nationhood and Nationalism in Henry V - Essay Example The literary work is about a king with a common touch in a war situation in which the French greatly outnumbered the English. It depicts a king who is a great war time leader, who, during war, exhibits patriotism - Henry V. Nationalism comes to the fore during wartime, in which participants are willing to make the ultimate sacrifice - giving one's life to one's country. Henry V is all about English nationalism, its very own diversity of love for country and fighting for its glory. Henry V, told entirely from the English point of view, is an almost complete study of the war with France in 1400s, in which the first part looks at the causes of the war, the preparation for it, and the people on the English side. England, led by Henry V was fighting an aggressive war against France for certain territories it wanted to obtain on its side, and staging such war with such intention was the very essence of this English nationalism in this period. During the time of which Henry V lived and reigned, dominant countries like England staged and fought aggressive wars in order to further a certain purpose and sacrificed lives of men to this end. The play's theatrical elements convey a political act, while theatrical interventions are traced in its substantial introduction into conflicts from the Napoleonic Wars to Vietnam and the Falklands.2 Henry V is an epic of English nationalism, considered a knowing and cynical piece of power politics to which its nationalism is primari ly based. One might argue that nationalism and power politics cannot go together, but the very essence of the literature on Henry V shows this distinct character of English nationalism in 1600s. The invasion of territory in order to herald a country as glorious and powerful is what characterised Henry V's nationalism. This nationalism was undertaken by Henry V as a king of the English throne, reaping victories for Her, and Her alone. Due to the emergence of international organizations and laws regarding warship, such the United Nations, today's purpose and conduct of fighting a war have long left the kinds that Henry V launched and fought. Hence, such war depicted in the epic seems to be confined only in movies nowadays, made into an entertainment or a historical saga. The Hollywood uses it as a film genre that expects to target a general patronage and show a historical drama and/or a documentary film, which learning institutions might use for visual aid in literature. Hollywood might be using it also as a heritage film, depicting the previous century in which England was often in a nostalgic approach, such as filming Shakespeare plays like this one and using splendid landscapes.3 They have been criticized for presenting 'heritage' in the background, such as presenting a stately home in the background and using this genre as both a marketable commodity and a romanticized portrayal of the past. 4 However, as pointed out a while ago, Henry V is not in any way an expose' of Hollywood fiction, but is rather a paean to English nationalism, amidst an almost power politics involved in the intent of staging the war. It is based on the life of King Henry V of England, focusing on the events following the Battle of Agincourt during the Hundred Years' War. Shakespeare was able to convey truthfully the events that transpired in
Monday, November 18, 2019
How may the teacher encourage more learner involvement in the lesson - Essay Example We shall review some language acquisition theories and chiefly the factors that affect language learning in the classroom. These factors are internal, like the personality of the learner, his motivation to learn the TL, and his aptitude for language learning. External factors like the curriculum, its relevance to the learner and the learning strategies will also be studied. Finally, we will study classroom interaction between various aspects and try to conclude what can be the ways of increasing learner involvement in the classroom. Classroom is an essential element of the formal system of education. Individuals learn many things outside the classroom. But the classroom is a place where optimal efforts are made to utilize every moment of the teaching session fruitfully. Books, teaching aids, methods and content are specially prepared according to learner needs. The aim is to achieve maximum positive results in minimum time. A language class is different. Language may be taught as a special subject. But language is a tool that enables students to approach other subjects and also to communicate with others. Language is skill based more than theory. Language learning is a life-long, eternal process. So what is the function of a second language classroom? Quite simply, the role of second language classroom is to bring a student to a point where he can begin to use the outside world for further second language acquisition. The language classroom can provide the students with enough comprehensible input to bring their second language competence to the point where they can begin to understand language heard outside, read independently and participate in conversations. Since they will be less than fully competent, it will be necessary to provide them with tools for encouraging and regulating input. In other words, all second language classes are transitional and no second language class can be expected to do t he entire job. Second language classes are best
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Womens Role In The Contemporary Society Sociology Essay In March 2011, Obamas administration released a report concerning the present womens condition in U.S.A.: it was really different from the one released 50 years ago, that represented the first report about the womens status requested by the president J.F. Kennedy. From the previous definition of perfect housewife in Kennedys administration report in 50s, nowadays women are described as a key feature of economy. Actually, women are in a difficult and controversial position: their condition is unstable, according to the deep contradictions between social roles and individual ambitions. In Women in America: Indicators of Social and Economical Well-Being, Valerie Jarret, Obamas counsellor, states that: As the report shows, women have made enormous progress on some fronts. Women have not only caught up with men in college attendance but younger women are now more likely than younger men to have a college or a masters degree. Women are also working more and the number of women and men in the labor force has nearly equalized in recent years. As womens work has increased, their earnings constitute a growing share of family income. (Jarrett, Tchen, iii) Unfortunately, it does not mean that gender equality has been reached. Indeed, the report stresses how all these achievements didnt bring to earning equality: American women have an income which is 75% less than mens one, according to the same level of education and job profile, in spite of the Equal Pay Act, which was passed in 1963 in order to overcome the gender pay gap. Moreover, women are also alone in their unequal condition: the married ones passed from 72% in 1970 to 62% in 2011; the single-parent family is mostly made by women, single or divorced, which brings them to an inferior social condition. This recent report doesnt portray, of course, a condition of gender equality. The long women path, made by great protests and important social and political achievements, reached a situation which is difficult to define and to change. Since 1950s women are fighting for their rights, and a lot of important historical changes were traced on the common people way of thinking. It does not regard only political and social stances, but also the way in which women were perceived and symbolized by traditional culture and media. The only way to understand how to give a change to the social role of the women in the contemporary society consists in tracing a trajectory that starts from the beginning of their fight and comes to our period. Just in this way it is possible to get the awareness of what can be improved and what deserves to be saved. Family, motherhood, domestic life: after the second war world, these were the most important concepts which leaded the American women condition. In 50s, home was the symbol of the family life, after the wealthy period brought by the economic growth, and every single family had its own house and was able to spend their incomes in consumer goods. According to that, the freedom of the American women could have its own expression in the house-life. The reaffirmation of the women as tutelary god of the domestic life became a symbol of stability in the post-war society. The post-war woman had to be the emblem of a calm and sexually reassuring femininity: maternity was the key-concept of the new femininity, which was meant as a symbol of the new successful American society. So, a political and social discourse leaded by the official history put women in an inferior position than mens one in the social scale. A turning point in the American women situation was brought by the publication of Friedans book The Feminine Mystique. The problem that has no name which is simply the fact that American women are kept from growing to their full human capacities is taking a far greater toll on the physical and mental health of our country than any known disease (Friedan, 433). In the same year, the federal report of the Commission on Status of women denounced their discrimination in the working, political and juridical spheres, claiming for fair salaries and maternity leave. Friedans voice reawakened women awareness of their condition: she talked about the feeling of frustration and social distress of the American women, who apparently lived in a comfortable and easy condition. It traced the beginning of the womens fight for their rights and for a new role in the society. It was characterized by an ideological feminist approach, which furthermore brought to the creation of associations for the defe nse of women rights. A real revolution against the common way of thinking gender discrimination took place in politics, society and media: in the 70s, the movement gained a series of political successes, such as the Equal Employment Opportunity Act (1972), Womens Educational Equity Act (1974) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1978). Otherwise, the two historical achievements of the movement were about abortion and divorce: in 1973, abortion became legal in U.S.A. after a long case, Roe vs. Wade, which was discussed by the United States Supreme Court; in 1969, the governor of California, Ronald Reagan, signed the Family Law Act, in which it was considered legal the No-Fault Divorce, which was accepted by the other states by 1985. Afterward, in the XXI century, Friedan looked back to the women movement, stressing the important changes brought by its achievements: There is no doubt that the womens movement has transformed American society, opening life in many ways for women and men alike. There may be nostalgic yearnings for the feminine mystique, but women are no longer defined solely in terms of their relation sexual, maternal, or domestic to men. They are defining their lives themselves by their actions in society (Friedan 2002, 14). Her statement is important because it stresses the difference between the position of women in the past century and the present one. The fight for the rights brought to a great success for the women, and their role is, of course changed since the 50s. Otherwise, the contemporary society is characterized by a peaceful uncritical acceptance of the world as it is: people hear about political disparity, unjustified wars and social problems, without any deep will to change the sit uation. The affluent society brought a lot of life spheres to a paralysis, which symbolizes the pacific acceptance of the world as it is, with its precarious balances. It seems to be the repetition of that condition of Ã «mystiqueÃ » defined by Friedman, but in this case applicable to the whole society. So, women also enjoyed the wellness effects on their position: after the great fight for rights, they reach a hypocritical equal role in the society as mens one. The path to the gender equality passed to a more intellectual stage: feminism became feminisms, that means a great division between all the women rights movements, according to their gender, racial, or religious approaches; in the universities an important field of studies, such as Women Studies, carried on important researches about womens culture and tradition. What appears as a present achieved condition of gender equality is, abruptly, contradicted by the above-mentioned 2011 federal report In Women in America: Indicators of Social and Economical Well-Being. The success in educational and political spheres does not correspond to an equal salary condition. Most of the women are also ostracized by important roles in the great companies, as well as in politics. Mass-media broadcast a feminine image based on the enhancement of the body, and the cultural icon of womens inferiority has not been deleted yet. Nowadays, the challenge is no more between mens and womens roles: it is evident that the matter is about a more wide range of social problems and inequalities which involve both men and women, and it results as a difficult stand-point to overcome. Indeed, a lot of recent studies shows as women discrimination is a matter of fact. As Julie Goldscheid stresses: Workplace inequality based on sex, as well as discrimination based on other protected characteristics, persist notwithstanding several decades of antidiscrimination laws (Goldscheid, 61). Otherwise, the 2011 federal report states that women are a key feature of the modern economy: in spite of it their role is corrupted and women have to face a constant discriminatory approach in their workplace. It does not depend any more from a social and political fight with mens power. It deals with the actual features of our contemporary society, which is not characterized by a shared solidarity in front of all the disparities. Most of the fights which had to be brought are left to the social minorities, which can just try to manage the problems, but they cant really face alone the spoiled facets of our community. For example, it is the case of the Chicano women movement: it was born in consequence of the success of the Chicano community in their fight for their minority rights in 60s, but the feminist association Comision Feminile Mexicana Nacional had to be created to fight for the adoption of bilingual consent form on the compulsory sterilization of women in U.S.A., in 1975. It shows how it does not exist a real solidarity between the different social members: even in the same community, it is difficult to fight for a common reason, and so everyone is facing the social unease on his own. Finally, another aspect of the matter to be faced is, of course, the strong influence that the society gender perspective plays in the process of womens identity self-determination. The tradition of women as a second sex, the other, the deviation from the norm which is male, seems to have been overcome by all the achievements in the past century: but the problem is still persisting, since nowadays the sociological researches emphasize the presence in the contemporary society of stereotypical standards of what a woman should be. As Izzard and Barden question: We also wished to think about what happens to a womans identity when she feels out of that fit when she cannot feel herself mirrored in the images that society presents to her of Woman. How does our society constrain women into or release them from narrow definitions? (Izzard and Barden, 2). It is a subtle discrimination, which represents the most difficult challenge of the matter, because it is the effect of the identity-making leaded by mass-media. Taking these points into consideration, I would say that a further step has to be made. It should represent a deep change in the approach to the matter. When I read The Future of Feminism, I completely agreed with Betty Friedan when she states that More than ever, we now have to think about moving to the second stage: the way to live the equality that we fought for in a world of diverse new family combinations of women, men, and children. The second stage is where we must move, women and men together. We need a new and politically active consciousness-raising to get us beyond the polarized and destructive male model of work and decision making and the undervalued womens model of life the model that takes it as inevitable that having children is a womans free individual choice to short-circuit permanently her earning power and her professional future (Friedan 2002, 15). Her opinion is important to understand the point in which we are stuck now: if one of the greatest leaders of the w omens right movement is ready to say that it is the moment to leave the fight against men, and work together in order to get new important achievements, it means that the times are changing. We cannot talk anymore about a fight for the main political rights, which were gained during the past 50 years, but the so-called Ã «second stageÃ » should be a more conscious and shared struggle for real changes in our paralyzed wellness society. Nowadays, the everyday social problems are shared by both men and women: we are talking about temporary employment, child-care especially for individual families and mobbing in the workplace. It is a matter of fact that these social features are strongly linked with our lives, but as well the common tendency is to feel them as irrelevant to our existence. It results that it is the effect of media and socio-political discourse to lead us to the indifference and the uncritical acceptance of this reality. So, rethinking about the women movement fight as an important historical moment for the social achievements in order to reach gender equality is the key to start the Ã «second stageÃ » of the struggle. Actually, the main step to be made in this second phase is, of course, a restructuring program of the work system, especially about its conditions. It is the first influence that society got in the everyday women, and as well men, lives: for example, thinking about individual families, managed by woman with a temporary job, it is evident that no help is given by governments to maintain her son. It is obvious that the first consequence is the dismissal of all those expectations about career, in favor of a low-profile job which let woman grows up her son. Furthermore, in the contemporary society the young generation is having great problems to face its career perspectives, because of the difficulties to find an employment. It involves especially women, who suffer more this social unease. As the 2011 federal report shows, their education level highly increased, but their salaries are still low because of the effects of the impasse which occurred in the job market. In conclusion, it is clear that great achievements were brought in gender equality process during the last fifty years. Women are considered a main feature of the economic system, and they are no more obliged to follow their so called housewife destiny. Otherwise, it is important to stress the need of new fights in order to contrast those sexual discriminating tendencies, which still exist in our society. The matter has to be meant as a global problem, and for this reason it should be shared by the different members of the community without any differences of gender and race. Media shouldnt corrupt our view about the society and its uneasiness: but, on the contrary, we should take advantage of our possibilities to face different realities around the world. For example, in Asia great developments are taking place, and the employment strategies for women are constantly elaborated in accordance with the changing society: as Leng Tang states, These developments imply less time spent on d omestic chores and child-raising, as well as greater possibilities for participating in employment outside the home throughout the life course (Leng Tang, 10). The need of gender equality is one of the most important aims to be pursued: but it can be gained just through great efforts made by all the members of the contemporary community, once more united to get their fundamental social rights. Sources Jarrett, Valerie and Tchen, Christina. Women in America: Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being. Washington, U.S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, March 2011. Jackson, David. White House Report: Women lag in pay, gain in education. USA Today, 01 March 2011. Gerson, Kathleen. Hard Choices: How Women Decide About Work, Career, and Motherhood. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. Print Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. In Peter B. Levy, 100 Key Documents in American Democracy, Westport: Greenwood, 1994. Print Friedan, Betty. The Future of Feminism. In Free Inquiry, Volume 19: Issue 3, 2002. Goldscheid, Julie. Gender Violence and Work: Reckoning with the Boundaries of Sex Discrimination Law. In Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, Volume 18: Issue 1, 2009. Izzard, Susannah and Barden, Nicola. Rethinking Gender and Therapy: The Changing Identities of Women. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2001. Print Leng Tang, Leng. Old Challenges, New Strategies: Women, Work and Family in Contemporary Asia. Boston: Brill, 2004. Print
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
This paper will address recent trajectories of college tuition, fees, and financial aid in order to assess the extent to which fiscal assistance has kept pace with increases in tuition. Agenda setting constructs will then be used to contexualize this relationship, as well as student loan debt in general, and to identify applications of this issue to macro level social work practice. Trends in Tuition, Fees, and Financial Aid Among public four-year institutions, the average cost of tuition and fees has increased by 2.9 percent for the 2013-2014 academic year, rising to $8,893 for in-state students. This trend was mirrored among out-of-state public four-year institutions as well; tuition and fees increased by 3.1 percent from $12,887 to $13,310. With regard to private four-year universities, the average cost of tuition and fees increased by 3.8 percent, a difference of $1,105. Although it appears as though the momentum of tuition increases has continued, it is important to note that the ascension of published costs between the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 academic years is the lowest proportion in increase over the past 30 years. That is, tuition and fees are continuing to increase with each academic year, however the percentage by which they do so is actually decreasing (Baum & Ma, 2013). When assessing college affordability, it is important to not only understand trends in tuition costs, but it is also necess ary to differentiate between the published costs of schools and the net prices that full-time students actually pay throughout their enrollment. Tuition and fees might vary according to reciprocity agreements between adjacent states, duration of enrollment, and student aid disbursements; these are all factors which could impact th... ...tarian education policies that make college more affordable and accessible in order to promote a competitive labor market and cultivate a proficient workforce. Conclusion Although the inflation of tuition and fees among post secondary institutions has begun to subside, the trajectory of federal financial aid and grant assistance has become increasingly unable to compensate for this trend. Increases in tuition and, subsequently, student loan debt can be attributed to agenda setting initiatives that supplement revenue losses, but simultaneously marginalize many students and increase the inaccessibility of higher education. In effect, the byproducts of tuition increases underscore the importance of macro-level social work practice and its ability to critically reframe fiscal education policies that best promote the economic welfare of students and their communities.
Monday, November 11, 2019
1. How can agriculture be seen as a development caused by politics or religion? What are the main ideas behind those theories? The development of agriculture as caused by religion and politics is comprehended when seeing how this economic activity affects food Ã¢â¬â its supply and production. Food, when its supply is limited and its acquisition is very difficult, tends to be equally distributed among those who engaged in its production. This was what characterized the earlier stages of our evolution. Everything, from food gathering and hunting, to cooking and eating, were social in nature because man was pitted against an environment that he still did not master. Thus, working together was the sole manner in which man was able to adapt to his environment and eventually survive. Cooking, with manÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery of fire, and subsequently eating food carried with it certain rituals that celebrated its availability and the human sustenance it will provide. As this process of mastering and changing nature as a culture continued, other ways of producing greater and more reliable amounts of food were discovered as in animal domestication and agriculture. When production activities eventually produced more food than what the social group needed, it was then that inequality in terms of the distribution of work involved and of its products emerged (p.51). This was what characterized the earlier engagement of man with plant propagation. While the elite (the nobility or those who ruled) do not work because they owned the land, they had an abundance of food. They are categorized as the non-food producers of society. Below them in the class structure, farmers toiled in the fields and ate less, giving land tribute to those who owned it. This kind of politics or the power over access to food without actually engaging in its labor enabled the elites to engage and further develop knowledge, not only in production but in warfare, philosophy, religion and the sciences. The social rituals involved in the pre-agriculture way of life of man, gave rise to religions that were integrated into the cycles of agricultural food production (p.52). Each stage of the cycle involves rituals that would ensure a season of plenty and bountiful harvests are celebrated with grand, religious festivals of eating the fieldsÃ¢â¬â¢ first produce. For example, the Aztecs conducted mass eating of sacred beans and corn stew, ingredients that came from the seasonÃ¢â¬â¢s harvests. Hence, both the political system and religious practices established the role of agriculture in societyÃ¢â¬â¢s methods of food acquisition. 2. What are the common features of government and religion across all the river valley civilizations? Why were they common? Civilizations tended to rise in river valley areas because the physical conditions of these environments permitted a sustainable source of water for agriculture. This is a far better situation as opposed to farmersÃ¢â¬â¢ dependence on unpredictable rain fall. The waters also served as carriers of minerals vital to the maintenance of soil fertility. A reliable supply of water means a higher probability of superior crops and good harvest. Good harvest also means food abundance or excess, human energy and life. The excess in food supply enabled man to engage in other fields of human development. Governments or their political structures are also quite similar in that there are rulers-emperors and pharaohs for example, who belong to the elite class. Serving them as officials are the religious (priests, scribes) and military leaders and bureaucrats. Governments are centralized with institutionalized ways of administration as evidenced in the laws, codes and policies enacted and enforced through force or otherwise (p.79). The consolidated political control over the whole population resulted in an integrated economy and a homogenous culture (p.86). Hence, the trading of the surplus of economic production through the labor of farmers or artisans became possible and gave rise to a class of merchants and traders. Trading, or the export of excess food and other products and the import of food and other products not available locally, was a financially lucrative enterprise for elites and governments, not to mention the luxury food and non-food items they acquired out of it. Hence, kingdoms, empires and dynasties waged conquests upon their neighbors to control trade i.e. to eliminate competition (p.95). The enhancement of its routes (i.e. master the rivers, seas and land for trade) was also one objective. The history of the Silk Road is an example of this. These imperialistic undertakings also made way for them to obtain other tradable resources made abundant in the conquered societies through the latterÃ¢â¬â¢s own production efforts (p.96). In this manner of establishing control of others through force, they also protected their societyÃ¢â¬â¢s resources (including their food supply). Religions across the river valley civilizations are characterized as involving elements of the natural environment as their gods (p.64). The Hindus considered water and some animals as sacred, Chinese religions centered on manÃ¢â¬â¢s harmony and unity with nature, civilizations pay tribute to the sun and moon. Incidentally, religion was not separate from government and their theology involved not just one but many deities who form a hierarchical system. Their practices reflect their interaction with nature as in crop cultivation, hunting, silk production, pottery making, etc. However, these religions were influenced by other religions as cultural contact as the result of trade became possible. The commonalities in government and religion among river valley civilizations stems from the same objective economic and political conditions which are consequences of their capacities to produce surplus food and other products for human consumption, adaptation to their environment. 3. What common characteristics of the empires of Assyria and Babylon share? What factors caused their failure? The empires of Assyria and Babylon were both river valley civilizations located in what is called the Fertile Crescent, between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. They both had a developed agricultural production, engaged in trading, philosophy, science and technology, the latter leading them to build ships, hanging gardens and more sophisticated weapons. They both had armies and conducted imperialistic conquests of each other and neighboring states. Failure was mostly due to internal instabilities of their empires (p.105). For instance, Assyria focused so much on war, its military and related technologies, spreading its armies so thinly in efforts to conquer as many other states as possible. Their thin dispersal made them vulnerable to other empire-states who were after the same objective or who just did not wish to be subjugated and reduced to slave labor. As a result, the basic agricultural production for food was neglected as more of the population became soldiers. More importantly, diversification of food production was not considered significant to merit attention. Reliance on just one method of domestic food production as well as conquest and trade for obtaining resources also fostered reliance on the great rivers for irrigation as a trade route (p.126). This did not prepare them for environmental and climate shifts wherein the rivers receded and became heavily silted adversely affecting agriculture and trade. Partner states in trade also ceased to engage in it because of their own specific internal problems. The resulting limitations in food and resources supply led to more wars and conquests which characterized the region of Mesopotamia and eventually wore down some of the empires (p.127). 4. Compare and contrast the three Chinese philosophical ideologies: Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism. Taoism is an ideology that focuses on the individual and his lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s mission of finding his place in the world. In order to achieve this, one has to study nature and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self as integral to it. Taoism promotes a view of nature whose beauty and rhythm is driven by a pervasive power in the universe. Drastic changes to the natural course of things would ruin this rhythm and balance (p.316). Confucianism emphasizes unity with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s social and natural environment, establishing social stability through non-violent means (p.317). Man should nurture himself and the natural environment as well. It teaches adherence to societyÃ¢â¬â¢s values and rituals, the hierarchical social order, education for further self-development and the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s role of earning trust through ensuring and protecting public welfare. It further promotes the common good in every endeavor through both individual and cooperative efforts. Legalism on the other hand, teaches the absolute rule of law in creating social stability. Because man is considered as innately self-centered, punishing those who break the law and rewarding those who adhere to it makes people law-abiding. It advocated utilitarianism, or engaging in activities that directly benefits others such as agriculture (p.317). Both Taoism and Confucianism promote harmony with the environment while Legalism, through its utilitarian principles, sought the labor of people in transforming the environment through agriculture, the building of the Great Wall and others. While Taoism values the individual, Confucianism values the social structure while Legalism, the law. Nature unobstructed is central to Taoism, while Confucianism tends to include promote harmony with nature as well as changing it as long as it constitutes the common good. Legalism discourages discourse on non-practical matters and focuses on nature only if it is within the realms of the law. Reference: Fernandez-Armesto, F. (2006) The World: A History Volume One to 1500. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Ã Ã Ã
Friday, November 8, 2019
Life and Works of Picasso essays It takes a long time to become young -Pablo Picasso Picasso was not only an extremely influential artist but was also politically active. He lived to be 92 years old and his life grew to be incredibly famous. He stood apart from the crowd, standing by his own political views even if they were not the norm at the time. Picasso was also a free thinker with his artwork. He had a unique style and due to this, he became the first artist to have fame during his lifetime. Picasso was born in 1881, Malaga, Spain. His parents Don Jose Ruiz and Dona Maria Lopez named him Pablo Ruiz Picasso. Pablo Picasso was baptized at the Iglesia de Santiago. Picasso was declared a delicate child due to an illness that affected his kidneys in the time between 1881-1890. He was sent to a private school where he never gained a full grasp of the alphabet or arithmetic. During this time he began to draw and paint under his fathers tuition. He overcomes his delicate description and enters secondary school and social activities with enthusiasm. He also shows this enthusiasm with his artwork. During the blue period (1901-1903) Picassos paintings focused mainly on the color blue. This particular color is effective in conveying a somber tone. The reason for picking blue, a depressing tone, was the suicide of Picassos' friend Casagemas. The blue period work is quite sentimental, but we must keep in mind that Picasso was still a teen, away from home for the first time, living in very poor conditions in Barcelona. Why blue dominated Picassos paintings during this time period remains unexplained. Possible influences could be photographs with a blush tinge popular at the time, poetry that stressed the color of blue in its imagery, or the paintings of French artists such as Eugene Carriere or Claude Monlet who based many of their paintings on color. Another explanat...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Window of Vulnerability Calculation Essay Example Window of Vulnerability Calculation Paper Window of Vulnerability Calculation Paper CALCULATE THE WINDOW OF VULNERABILITY A security breach has been identified within a small Microsoft workgroup LAN. The workgroup consists of three primary workgroups which contain group membership lists of users within the Active Directory infrastructure that currently exists on the SMB Server that is located within the confines of the LAN structure. The security breach, which is defined as any event that results in a violation of any of the CIA (confidentiality, integrity, availability) security principles, was caused by the SMB server being accessed by an unauthorized user due to a security hole that was detected by the server software manufacturer the previous day. The security patch will not be available until possible as long as three days, but hopefully within that timeframe. In addition, the LAN administrator needs at least one week (minimum) to download, test, and install the patch. To calculate the Window of Vulnerability (WoV) for this security breach, the following timeline will be used as a guideline to determine the basis for calculation: However, first it is important to understand the variables considered in this timeline formula. The WoV is the period within which defensive measures are reduced, compromised, or lacking. The WoV covers a timeline from the moment a vulnerability is discovered and identified by the vendor. It also includes the time taken to create, publish, and finally apply a fix to the vulnerability. It is also important to explore the device(s) that were targeted by the attack. In this instance, being the SMB server within the LAN. The SMB server utilizes an application layer network protocol, which can run atop the session layer. It provides shared access to files, printers, serial ports, and network nodes (workstations, laptops, desktops, etc. ) and provides a client/server relationship throughout the network. This means that every domain layer of the IT Infrastructure can possibly be affected at some level by this security breach that has occurred, which must be considered in the timeframe analysis of the WoV as well. In addition, it is important to consider exactly how this security breach occurred, when determining counter-measures to contain and reduce the likelihood of any such occurrences from happening again. However, these factors are not actually part of the timeline for calculating the WoV, but should be addressed when understanding the WoV. The security hole that was detected by the server software manu-facturer the previous day gave the unauthorized user a window of opportunity/vulnerability by discovering the backdoor (security hole) to access resources and bypass existing security controls, password encryption, and access controls that were put in place to protect the IT infrastructure. It is possible that a utility such as netcat was used or a rootkit or some type of Trojan horse backdoor software or device. Calculation of Window of Vulnerability: Factors to consider in the timeline: * 1 Day Ago = Security Hole Detected by Manufacturer * 3 Days = A patch will be Available 1 Week = Minimum time for LAN admin to download/test/install patch Therefore, Day 0 = 09/28/12; + 3 days = 10/01/12; + 7 days = 10/08/12 (min) *[+ 2 days extra for any potential problems] 10/10/12 = Day n . This can be depicted in the following graphical display: Day n = a total of 13 days have elapsed from Day 0 . In conclusion, the WoV would be 1 3 days based on this timeframe. *You could conceivably calculate the WoV to be 11 days without including the additional 2 days I figured in for margin of error/potential problems. However, it is best to always calculate on a worst-case scenario basis when calculating the Window of Vulnerability
Monday, November 4, 2019
Samsung - Essay Example The company which always prided in its expertise to customize the product according to the needs of the customer has indeed come a long way from its formative years. The importance it gives to the quality is reflected in the fact that the flawed memory chips worth tens of millions of dollars are burnt in the open field to remind the employees of the belief customers place in their company. It has won several awards for quality during the periods 1995 - 2003 from fiercely competing companies too, which is a hallmark of sorts. The strategies it employed in bringing out the best of its engineers were a novelty then and the same strategies are now implemented across the globe to repeat the same success story Samsung had written. The company is the leading supplier of memory cards to PCs, digital cameras, game players and other electronic devices. Its primary focus was on the memory chips category which has had its own fluctuations over a period of 2 decades. There were established player s in the market like Infineon Technologies, Elpida, Micron Technology, Hynix, etc. Most of these companies were as a result of alliances with Global giants like Intel, Siemens, Toshiba and Hyundai. Samsung too acquired technology from Micron on 'cash for technology' basis. It then implemented a unique internal competition for advancements of its acquired technology. ... It graduated to the frontline companies in this category and soon toppled Hitachi as the number one producer of memory chips. The presence of Samsung's main R&D facility in one location, south of Seoul, helped save a substantial amount in construction costs. The development of Samsung's memory chips division closely follows the Porter Diamond model in that the location, available raw materials and labor are crucial factors for comparative advantage. The high employee morale that has been its strength right from its birth has ensured its position stay perched at the top firmly for decades. Samsung was also responsible for 22% of all of South Korea's exports in 2004 and was a major contributor in the $22.1 billion worth semiconductor exports from South Korea. It also represented 23% of the total market value on the Korean Stock Exchange. With this kind of economic impact on the nation, it is important from both the Government's and the company's view, that it sustains the growth level. The net revenue over a period of two decades is as follows. It shows the fluctuations in the market which needs to assessed in fine detail to ensure its leadership positioning in the market. Twice in seven years, there was a dip in profits which is a reflection of the growing competition and emphasizes the need to take appropriate measures to maintain the projected growth rates. It also stresses on the need to work on the rapidly changing technology segment. Its present focus is on the flash memory segment, which looks poised for growth in the coming years but the existing competitors have already captured a major chunk of the market. Samsung has been in the race in inventing itself according to the needs of the customer base, but the entry of Chinese companies will make it more
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Services Marketing - Bachelor of Business - Essay Example Consequently, a problem of identification, classification, and evaluation of service and goods components of a product with further individualized development of a marketing campaign emerges. A number of studies have been conducted in this area of marketing; however, the field is still relatively new and is more relevant, considering the global market tendency, then ever (Lovelock, C., & Wirtz, J. 2004). In order to develop marketing strategies and promotion with planning in particular, the product must be categorized in the first place. Product can be defined as anything offered in a market that might satisfy a want or a need and is further subdivided into two categories: services and goods. The major difference between the two is tangibility: while a good is a material product one can tough and feel, service is intangible and is usually consumed during the production process. As previously stated in the introduction, a global market shift to complete service solutions results in emergence of mixed products, that have characteristics of both goods and services. ... orization can be brought down to the issue of whether a product has more good or service features and thus can be placed on a continuum of good or service dominant products (Lovelock, C., Patterson, P.G., & Walker, R.H. 2001). To illustrate, consider the two service industries: nursing and auto repair industry. While nursing has dominating service elements and can be regarded as a highly service dominant product, auto repair industry has dominant good characteristics as the issue of tangibility rises and thus is considered to be a good dominant product. Consequently, a marketing strategy that distinguishes between elements of goods and services in a product sees a product from a customer's point of view and backwards: seeks a product that would satisfy complete customer needs. Service Dominant and Good Dominant Products: Management Implications Product classification into good and service dominant products has similar implications for both management and marketing. The categorization in a need to imply a separate set of plans to good and service elements of a single product. Consequently, marketing and management approaches differ not only between two, three, or more products, but also between the aspects within a single product. Thus, the approaches are individualized, become more specific fore each product and more complex if to consider an organization as a whole (McColl-Kennedy, J.R. 2003). On the other side of the fence, such categorization offers new opportunities for management of service and good dominated products. Doris Van Doren, Jane Durney, and Colleen Darby when considering the issue of service line management as a strategic tool for generic services, discuss managerial approaches used in health care institutions (1993). While the majority of