Wednesday, July 17, 2019
Travel and Tourism Field : Bangkok Field Trip
Introduction touristry is clearly understood as an noble cause of umpteen changes involving various(a) prospects, consisting of the terminuss economy, regime and culture (Cohen, 2001 Crick, 1994). With these radical changes, locals soften various posture towards touristry development and tourists themselves, some(prenominal) positive(p)ly and ostracisely. Tourists behavioral, as one scenery pull up stakesing to the influential of locals attitude towards touristry, were bought upon by their demand to motivity as s easy up as their origin sphere and culture.MacCannell (1989) suggests that touristry is a social phenomenon that can be suck ined as a stold epoch where human race interactions transpire. As for this case deal, preeminent concenter will be on what trip tourists to impress, their behavior and interaction towards the locals, as wholesome as how locals repartee to these behaviors of the tourists and their l brightening towards them. This news rep ort was limited in one particularized tourism attraction in Bangkok. touristry assiduity is a major economical factor in Thailand.With new obtain malls and hotels built in Bangkok over recent years, international visitors grew over 14 million vacationing in Thailand, rank 18th some visited country in the world (tourism Authority of Thailand, 2010). Brief interviews and card will be focus onto the locals and tourists depend their behavior and interaction in Bangkok. matter study in Bangkok A divergent sense of space induce upon arrival at the airport, with h octonaryer from Decaturened attention on the objectives of the study trip, eyes were wide fix and attempting to spot on materials relevant for the research.During the trip, virtually of the travelling was done via walking and communion barrier was an obstacle to be tackled during interaction with the locals. In attempt to accomplish the study trip theme, deuce-ace interviews were conducted with former(a) tourist s and eight conducted with the locals, those of known common languages. Interesting responses were effrontery from the locals with dissimilar billet roles. Culture fog arise while observing their socio ethnical environment, specifically on the public response towards the young boy with twain build up amputated under the blazing sun beggary for money and how locals could dine under foul unhygienic conditions.Observation and experimental test proven locals attitude towards tourists can easily be manipulated with tipping and money. Many tourists with similarity nationality were spotted in the passage of Phetchaburi obtain malls and streets. In aspect of tourism glaze, it was dishearten to watch other tourists with the same nationality to behavior in an unethical manner. Events as a great deal(prenominal) were several wastage of solid food by the tourists collect to the cheap price or fondness to try proscribed Thai Cuisines rather than filling up and absurd bargaining by tourists in shopping malls. Literature reviewResearches and theories of others were examine to encompass tourism want of traveling. Personality and motivation are interrelated, where personality could be divided up into psychocentric, as non-adventuresome, and allocentric groups, as adventuresome (Plog, 1974). Dann (1977) and Crompton (1979) twain emphasize the importance of Push and bow out factors shaping tourist motivations. Iso-Ahola (1982) suggests tourism motivation consist of extrinsic voice, need to run a management the e preciseday environment, and intrinsic section, desire to don psychological rewards through travel in a unalike environment.Kozaks (2002) study examines the differences in tourist motivation surrounded by nationalities, as well as the name and addresss. His study observe four dimensions of travel motivations includes heathenish, pleasure or fantasy based, relaxation based and carnal motives. Ambro (2005) suggests that when tourists interact in a real destination for a gigantic distance of time, a kind of limit settlement will be developed and whitethorn even become part of their identity operator which develop their avidity to visit the come out again With aspect to tourism behavior, Ritter (1987) suggests that different tourist behavior is influenced by different nationality.However, Dann (1993) criticized the use of nationality as a bushel discriminating variable for illustrating the dissimilarity rear in the tourists behavior. Additional variable much(prenominal) as age and gender differences plays a part on different motives and behaviors. quondam(a) tourists hedge to travel based on relaxation and cultural exploproportionn, whereas younger tourists tend to seek for physical activities and engage in sports when visiting a destination (Cristina. t al, 2008). Conversely Andreu et al (2005) identified that age of a tourist take tos no real influence on travel motivations. As for the gender differences r egards to traveling, Andreu et al (2005) suggest that fe manlike tourist prefer a stronger beat based and relaxation motives while male tourist preferred more(prenominal) pleasure and activity. Following reviews will be the organic studies on the locals intelligence toward tourism.Mass tourism generates melodramatic changes in both physical and cultural environment, impacting on the values and traditional way of animation in the local community. These changes fierceness local to be actively obscure in the tourism industry of the destination (Getz 1994). Ap et al (1998) claimed that a well-establish consanguinity surrounded by the locals and tourists was prerequisite for a tourist destination to achieve long term development, still the attitudes of the local hold gameyly insurrectionist meanings towards the growth of the destination (Relph, 1976).Milman et al (1988) studied the positive attitudes towards tourists, with employment opportunities, income from taxes and increase property of life as a positive impact of tourism. Mansfeld (1992) focused the perceptions of the local and examined the negative impacts of tourism. He suggested that locals with high incomes from tourism hold more positive attitudes towards tourism. Furthermore, Duvall (2002) pinpointed the negative impacts of tourism, which were the high taxes and prices in the destination, no vacation for the locals and long working hours to earn money.Additionally, Jafari (2001) discovered sise platforms of tourism, twain platforms namely the Advocacy and warning(a) platforms emphasized the positive and negative impacts of tourism, which was support by the previous studies. Liu et al (1987) study locals perceptions of the negative impacts of tourism as a function hooklike on the ratio among the identification number of tourists and locals. He claims that with higher ratio of tourists per locals will eventually lead to stronger criticism of tourism and a ensuant increase in opp osition to tourism development.Contradicting to his analysis, holy person et al (2007) evaluated that the higher parsimoniousness of tourism in a destination, the more favorable people are to tourism development and less worried some the negative impact. Results and Analysis With limitations and insufficiency of time, three interviews were conducted with other tourist within the street of Phetchaburi, mainly Singaporean and Australian develop from 21 to 33. The general question stick on to them was What made you choose to travel to this place? The results from these candidates hold different opinions according to their nationality. From the cardinal interviews conducted, both with the same nationality as Singaporean, a couple aging 24 and 25, and a group of three youngsters aging 22 to 25 respectively, similar results shown that their motives to travel was to escape from everyday routine life, to relax and most importantly, shopping. The first interview conducted with the cou ple likewise stated that it was their fourth time traveling to Bangkok because they love the place.These groups were assort as psychocentric (Plog, 1974), and were motivated as Push factors in relevance from Dann (1977) and Crompton (1979) studies. Motivated from the extrinsic component (Iso-Ahola, 1982), they seek to escape from everyday life and decided to travel to Bangkok as an option. As for the first interview candidates, the results present Ambro (2005) study whereas they had treated Bangkok as their split second home. On the contrary, results interpreted from the Australian couple hold different perceptive compared to the first two results.The Australian couple aging 31 and 33, both carrying bulky haversack, mentioned that they were on an adventure to aspect Bangkok Grand Palace and Temples. Phetchaburi solely served a pit-stop for them and had no interests in shopping, their desire to see and obtain new companionship from different countries culture and history. In a greeable with the motivation concepts, this Australian couple was classified as allocentrics (Plog, 1974), and were motivated as draw in factors in relevance from Dann (1977) and Crompton (1979) studies.Contrasting from the first and second candidates, they were motivated from the intrinsic component (Iso-Ahola, 1982), seeking for new knowledge and experience from traveling where they were unable to achieve back in their country. In respect to the interviews conducted with other tourists, the two different nationalities, Singaporean and Australian, supported Kozak (2002) and Ritter (1987) studies as different nationality reflected different motives and behavior in tourism.Due to the small group have in this study case, it was prejudiced to confirm the none between Cristina et al (2008) and Andreu et al (2005), and observations during the trip were partially agreeable with Dann (1993), age and gender plays a role in different motives and behaviors beside nationality. Such observ ations were spotted in Platinum Mall, where most shoppers were young tourists, mostly females, bargaining on items in shops vendor. From the results of the eight interviews conducted by the locals, half-dozen show positively while two explained why tourism affected negatively towards the community.Corresponding to (Relph, 1976), these result signifies that not all locals hold the same perception and attitude towards tourism. Questions such as What do you think tourism is Bangkok, Why were affix to the candidates and results were recorded as follows. These six locals who denotative positively towards tourism stated tourism allowed them to make a living and increased their quality of life (Jafari, 2001 Milman et al, 1988). Out of these six locals, one which was the owners of traditional Thai work centre indicated that locals with higher incomes from tourism hold more positive attitudes towards tourism (Mansfeld, 1992).Two locals, mainly the therapist and the shop vendor expresse d negatively. According to the therapist, she stated that their pay was very little with long working hours during prime quantity seasons, very tiring and limited line of business option as most job availability in the destination caters to the tourists industry (Duvall, 2002). As for the shop vendor, she mentioned tourists bargaining of goods and items created a negative impact towards the businesses in the shopping mall, and would rather to locals as their customer because they do not bargain as much (Jafari, 2001).From the interview with the Restaurant Waiter, the results reflected relevance findings with Angel et al (2007), explained that its a everyday norm to see tourists waste their food t wherefore would not mind them doing so. In equality with 3 of the interviews, conducted by the Shop seller, cut Practitioner and Tuk Tuk Rider, interesting results dispassionate which show the inconsistency of locals perception towards tourism (Relph, 1976). two Manicure Practitione r and Tuk Tuk Rider preferred tourist customer as they could earn more from them.Notwithstanding in the Shop Vendors view as she preferred local customers. No such findings corresponds to Liu et al. (1987) study which locals perceptions of the negative impacts of tourism as a function dependent on the ratio between the number of tourists and locals Studying both results from other tourists and the locals, as well with observation throughout the trip, various connections were discovered between the tourist and the locals in this case study.Starting off, evidences had pointed out different nationality plays a crucial role onto individuals motive in traveling, leading to various behaviors. Locals perceptions towards tourism quit with the tourists behavior, which in-turn not solo generates nationality stereotyping, but too acceptation towards their behavior. One distinct antecedent of such adoption was tourism money.With this word meaning developed with the locals, enhanced servi ce pleasure was provided towards tourists rather than towards the locals themselves, which resulted high satisfaction direct from tourist and eventuate high disbursal of them. There forth some locals essay to take advantage whereas they tried to heave up prices of services and goods, holding the feeling that most tourists would not be evocative of expenditure cost. Frustration occurred for every failed attempt, such examples could be observed from the Shop Vendor and the Taxi Driver.Possibility of such failure grow back to the tourists nationality. This relationship not only associates the interactions between tourists and the locals, however evolved through the acceptation of tourists behaviors and the level of locals heading to earn tourism money. Model 1 Overview of the relationship between the Tourists and Locals Model 2 Acceptance and assist level interrelation with Expectancy on earning from tourists Model 1 shows the overview of the relationships between tourists a nd locals demonstrate in this case study as mentioned previously.Model 2 displays a simplified graph, due to the lack of quantitative data collected indicate the higher level of acceptance and service level, the higher expectancy and intention to earn tourism money. Conclusion The a priori concepts extracted from literature reviews constitute discussion pointers on tourism motivation and behavior, as well as local perception and attitude towards tourism. In conclusion of this study case, the results highlighted the addiction of tourisms motivation and behavior on nationality.Thus, the results excessively evidence inconsistency of locals perception towards tourism. military rating of the analysis suggested a relationship between the tourist and the locals from the case study. The relationship indicates the acceptance of tourists behavior as an influential component with the level of quality services provided, hence leading to the intention and expectancy on tourism money. The fin dings of this study display real meanings and explanation on the inconsistency of locals perception towards tourism as well as their behavior towards ourism. Due to the location and sample quantity limitations from the study case, questions such as does gender contribute to different tourism motivation and behavior and diversification of the relationship suggested from this case study between the tourists and locals in different destination were yet to be answered. (2213 words) References Andreu, L. , Kozac, M. , Avci, N. , Cifter, N. (2005). Market segmentation by motivations to travel British tourists visiting Turkey. journal of function and tourism Marketing, 19(1), 1-14. Ambroz, M. (2005).Sociology of touristry The basis for the investigation of travelling cultures. Portoroz Turistica. Angel, B. B. , Jaume, R. N. (2007). Attitudes towards tourism and tourism congestion. JEL Classification, L83, 194-206. Ap, J. & Crompton, J. L. (1998). growth and Testing a tourism impingeme nt Scale. Journal of Travel Research, 37, 120-130. Cohen, N. , eds. (2001). Ethnic Tourism in Southeast Asia. Bangkok, Thailand White white lily Press. Crick, M. 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